Dr. Carol Byrne: A Series on the History of the Dialogue Mass
#11
Incidentally, Fr. Paul Robinson recommends the "dialogue Mass" and thinks it was a great development, and he's positive about the whole "liturgical movement" in general. There's an early episode of the "podcast" in the days when it was audio only, with "Andrew" (whoever he is) interviewing Fr. Robinson, in the days when the latter was still a seminary professor in Australia. The question was about the Pius XII holy week, if I recall.

https://sspxpodcast.com/2019/08/question...holy-week/

There is of course a lot more that could be said about Pius XI and what a bad Pope he was in many ways. 

Dr. Byrne is quite right, but it goes far beyond just the liturgical movement. 

Pius XI had a fixation on the idea of "democracy" which seems to have completely warped his thinking, to the point where we find him supporting the League of Nations in the 1920s, sending a personal note of congratulations to the Second Spanish Republic at the start of the 1930s (he wasn't quite so fast in recognising Franco once the Spanish Civil War had started and it was clear that the Republic's days were numbered); the betrayal of the Cristeros in Mexico; the scandalous condemnation of Charles Maurras and the French movement Action Franciase... and more. And related to all of which, his general promotion of what he called "Christian Democracy" at the expense of monarchist movements, and the undermining of Catholic Action with his confused (and basically false teaching) that Catholic Action was the work of the clergy in which the laity participate, instead of it being the work of the laity in which the clergy participate - which in effect neutered the political clout of Catholics and turned Catholic Action from being about laws, politics, shaping the society in which we live... to being a matter of helping to clean the parish church every second Saturday of the month, or helping to do the flowers for the altar, or learning to serve Mass. All great things, but not Catholic Action. 

Pius XI has a lot to answer for - Vatican II didn't just spring out of nowhere!
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#12
Dr. Carol Byrne: A Series on the History of the Dialogue Mass
How Bugnini Grew Up under Pius XII
Taken from here. All emphasis in the original.


Fr. Annibale Bugnini, CM, was a priest of the Congregation of the Mission, an institution founded by St. Vincent de Paul (hence the epithet Vincentian) to preach the Gospel to the poor, as its motto, “evangelizare pauperibus” indicates. In 1947, a scandal arose in the residence where Bugnini and his co-worker, Fr. Francesco Bossarelli, CM, lived in Rome at the Church of San Silvestro al Quirinale, which belonged to the Congregation of the Mission.

Inside the murky world of San Silvestro: the ‘Bossarelli Case’

Bugnini and Bossarelli had been close collaborators, running the Congregation’s affairs at San Silvestro and editing its missionary publications, Edizioni Liturgiche e Missionarie.

Records from the Vincentian archives show that in 1947 Bugnini, as Secretary (see here) of the Congregation’s Provincial Council, (1) was in charge of its administrative affairs when millions of dollars of Vatican funds went missing.

A special Commission set up by Pius XII found that Fr. Francesco Bossarelli “and his associates” were guilty of embezzling $2,000,000 belonging to the Vatican in “black market financial dealings.” (2) (see here, pp. 49-50 and here, p. 2 - Shades of Sindona and the P2 Masonic Lodge).

The Provincial Superior at San Silvestro was dismissed by the Holy See for covering up the affair. Bugnini must also have had confidential knowledge of these criminal activities, a situation from which he could not have emerged with clean hands.


Hiding Behind a Shield of secrecy

Unknown to Pius XII, Fr. Bugnini had been making clandestine visits to the Centre de Pastorale Liturgique (CPL), a progressivist conference centre for liturgical reform which organized national weeks for priests.

Inaugurated in Paris in 1943 on the private initiative of two Dominican priests (3) under the presidency of Fr. Lambert Beauduin, it was a magnet for all who considered themselves in the vanguard of the Liturgical Movement. It would play host to some of the most famous names who influenced the direction of Vatican II: Frs. Beauduin, Guardini, Congar, Chenu, Daniélou, Gy, von Balthasar, de Lubac, Boyer, Gelineau etc.

[Image: F085_Bugnini.jpg]
Archbishop Bugnini greeted by Pope Montini, who since he was a Monsignor cleared the way for Fr. Bugnini's work of destruction

It could, therefore, be considered as the confluence of all the forces of Progressivism, which saved and re-established Modernism condemned by Pope Pius X in Pascendi.

According to its co-founder and director, Fr. Pie Duployé, OP, Bugnini had requested a “discreet” invitation to attend a CPL study week held near Chartres in September 1946:

Quote:“I had a visit from an Italian Lazarist, (4) Fr. Bugnini, who had asked me to obtain an invitation for him… During our return journey to Paris, as the train was passing along the Swiss Lake at Versailles, he said to me: 'I admire what you are doing, but the greatest service I can render you is never to say a word in Rome about all that I have just heard.'” (5)

Much more was involved here than the issue of secrecy. The person whose heart beat as one with the interests of the reformers would return to Rome to be placed by an unsuspecting Pope in charge of his Commission for the General Reform of the Liturgy.


The Plot Thickens

But someone in the Roman Curia did know about the CPL – Msgr. Giovanni Battista Montini, the acting Secretary of State (6) and future Paul VI – who sent a telegram (see here, p. 3) to the CPL dated January 3, 1947. It purported to come from the Pope with an apostolic blessing. If, in Bugnini’s estimation, the Roman authorities were to be kept in the dark about the CPL so as not to compromise its activities, a mystery remains. Was the telegram issued under false pretences, or did Pius XII really know and approve of the CPL?

What is certain is that Fr. Bugnini could not have been appointed as Secretary of the 1948 Commission without Msgr. Montini’s intervention with Pius XII, as it was the Secretary of State who, in the normal course of Vatican affairs, had the biggest say in forwarding names for papal appointments.


Sow Bugnini, Reap Corruption

As history has shown, appointing Bugnini as Secretary of the Liturgical Commission was the equivalent of placing Dracula in charge of the blood bank. This monstrous figure was allowed to assume complete control of the Commission and to work against a centralized control of the liturgy vested in the Curia.

[Image: F085_bea.jpg]
Card. Bea, confessor of Pius XII, won the Pope to the cause of the reforms

His ultimate foe was the Congregation of Rites, which had been founded by Pope Sixtus V in 1588 to safeguard the uniformity of the Roman Rite. He complained that “for centuries the Church willed that all worship in the Roman Rite should everywhere show perfect uniformity.” (7)

His objective was to smash “the hegemony of the Congregation of Rites.” (8) Soon it would be reduced to a tin pot army incapable of defending the realm of the Church’s worship against his policy of “inculturation.” Then, it would be abolished by Paul VI in 1969.

Fr. Bugnini informs us in his posthumous memoirs that the Commission met in “absolute secrecy.” The result was that not even the Pope could be certain of its deliberations. The only updates he received were relayed through biased intermediaries: Msgr. Montini whose own credibility was bound up with the reforms and Fr. Augustin Bea, a member of the Commission, who had already been permitted by Pius XII to dabble in liturgical matters and break with Tradition. (9)

Bugnini stated:
Quote: “The Commission enjoyed the full confidence of the Pope, who was kept informed by Msgr. Montini, and even more so, weekly, by Fr. Bea, the confessor of Pius XII. Thanks to this intermediary, we could arrive at remarkable results, even during the periods when the Pope's illness prevented anyone else getting near him.” (10)

The reason for the secrecy was not hard to find: Fr. Bugnini’s agenda included liturgical deviations condemned by Pius XII in Mediator Dei, even though he could not introduce them all immediately. In the light of this collusion, the Novus Ordo of 1969 was simply the end game of a decades-long strategy masterminded by Fr. Bugnini with Msgr. Montini acting as his personal consigliere and “Grand Vizier” to Pius XII.


The Hermeneutic of ‘Bugninuity’

One of the most objectionable characteristics of Bugnini was his capacity for deception. He crossed his heart and swore repeatedly that he was carrying out the wishes of Pope Pius X and following the tradition of the Council of Trent in overhauling the liturgy. (11) His self-declared aim was to return the liturgy of the Roman Rite from a “dark age” of unintelligibility to “worship in spirit and truth” in which all could actively participate. (12)

[Image: F085_Portland.jpg]
A reform already in practice in the '50s in Portland, above, and Kansas City, below

[Image: F085_KC1954.jpg]


This agenda was set out as early as 1949 in the Ephemerides Liturgicae, a leading Roman review on liturgical studies of which Fr. Bugnini was Editor from 1944 to 1965.

First, he denigrated the traditional liturgy as a dilapidated building (“un vecchio edificio”), which should be condemned because it was in danger of falling to pieces (“sgretolarsi”) and, therefore, beyond repair.

Then, he criticized it for its alleged “deficiencies, incongruities and difficulties,” which rendered it spiritually “sterile” and would prevent it appealing to modern sensibilities. (13)

It is difficult to understand how, in the same year that he published this anti-Catholic diatribe, he was made a Professor of Liturgy in Rome’s Propaganda Fide (Propagation of the Faith) University. (14)

His solution was to return to the simplicity of early Christian liturgies and jettison all subsequent developments, especially traditional devotions. (15)

These ideas expressed in 1949 would form the foundational principles of Vatican II’s Sacrosanctum Concilium. For all practical purposes, the Roman Rite was dead in the water many years before it was officially buried by Paul VI.


Continued



1. Catalogue des Maisons et du Personnel de la Congrégation de la Mission 1947, “V1947” (1947), Personnel Catalogues, Paper 86, p. 73. Francesco Bossarelli, CM is also mentioned on page 73 as a “consultor.”
2. The special Commission insisted that the burden of repayment to the Holy See should fall on the entire Vincentian community around the world. To satisfy the Pontifical Commission, the Congregation’s Motherhouse in Paris asked the American Provinces to arrange for loans of the essential money because no other Provinces could raise the required funds in the aftermath of the war. It was not until 1966 that the debt was fully paid.
3. Frs. P. Duployé and A-M. Roguet. Its mission was to promote the Liturgical Movement by organizing conferences, encouraging research and publishing liturgical studies in its magazine, La Maison-Dieu, which was produced by the Dominican publishing house, Editions du Cerf.
4. In addition to the term Vincentians, priests of the Congregation of the Mission were sometimes called Lazarists after the Maison St. Lazare in Paris where St. Vincent de Paul had lived and worked.
5. P. Duployé, Les origines du CPL, Mulhouse, Salvator, 1968, p. 308. Forty religious superiors and seminary rectors were assembled there under the chairmanship of Mgr. Harscouёt, Bishop of Chartres, a supporter of Beauduin since 1909. Among the speakers were Fr. Daniel Perrot, Rector of the Seminary of the Mission de France for worker-priests, Fr. Pie Régamey, OP, editor of the review L'Art Sacré who advocated a minimalist style of church decoration, Fr. Yves Congar, OP, a progressivist theologian and pioneer of ecumenism, Fr. A-G Martimort, a convenor of CPL events and future drafter of Sacrosanctum Concilium, the above-mentioned Fr. Duployé, OP, and the ubiquitous Fr. Beauduin.
6. After the death of the last Secretary of State in 1944, Pius XII did not appoint a successor, but gave Mgr. Montini the role of “Substitute” and later “Pro-Secretary of State.” This does not mean that Montini was a minor functionary; he was responsible for both the Church’s external relations with other countries and the internal relations among the various other offices of the Church. In his capacity, he had discretion as to who should see the Pope, what information reached him and which persons should be considered for appointment to Vatican posts.
7. A. Bugnini, The Reform of the Liturgy 1948-75, Collegeville, Liturgical Press, 1990, p. 42.
8. Apud Denis Crouan, The History and the Future of the Roman Liturgy, Ignatius Press, 2005, p. 136.
9. In 1945, Pope Pius XII approved for use in the Divine Office a new Latin version of the Psalms, the work of a committee of experts at the Pontifical Biblical Institute in Rome under the direction of Fr. Bea, SJ.
10. The committee made a complete break with tradition by discarding the biblical and liturgical Latin that had been used in the Church since early Christian times. In its place they used a form of Classical Latin borrowed from the humanistic tradition of the ancient Romans, which had a different connotation. Even its rhythm was unfit for Catholic purposes as it could not be easily sung to Gregorian Chant. This innovation introduced by Pius XII could not be regarded as an example of the “hermeneutic of continuity.” Rather we should call it the “Beatification” of the Psalter.
11. A. Bugnini, The Reform of the Liturgy 1948-75, p. 9
12. Interestingly, Pope Paul VI perpetuated the same myth when he stated in his Apostolic Constitution Missale Romanum of April 3, 1969 that the Novus Ordo and the liturgical reform resulting from Vatican II were a continuation of the developments of previous centuries, including the Council of Trent.
13. A. Bugnini, The Reform of the Liturgy 1948-75, p.283
14. A. Bugnini, “Per una Riforma Liturgica Generale,” in Ephemerides Liturgicae, March 1949. The “difficulties” he envisaged were references to “negative” aspects of reality such as punishment for sin, divine anger, damnation, eternal punishment, etc. He stated that a general reform would save the Church’s liturgy from the “sterilità” (sterility) and the “archeologismo” (outdatedness) of Tradition. See here
15. Also in the reign of Pius XII, he was appointed Professor in the Pontifical Institute of Sacred Music in 1955, Consultor to the Sacred Congregation of Rites in 1956, and Professor of Sacred Liturgy in the Lateran University in 1957.
[font=Georgia, Times, "Times New Roman", serif]Bugnini stated: “La riforma dev'essere concepita come un ritorno alla tradizione primitiva della celebrazione del mistero cristiano piuttosto che come un compromesso tra questa celebrazione in sottordine e le superfetazioni de-vozionali che l'hanno disarticolata nel corso dei secoli.” [The reform must be conceived as a return to the primitive tradition of the Christian mystery, rather than a compromise between a second class celebration and devotional additions that have disjointed it over the centuries.][/font]



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From the above article: "His [Bugnini's] solution was to return to the simplicity of early Christian liturgies and jettison all subsequent developments, especially traditional devotions." See also footnotes #12 & 15.

Almost every article that addresses Bugnini's role in the liturgical massacre that occurred in the 1950's-1960's mentions this defense of his - that his 'solutions' were a return to early Christian liturgies. But this 'return' has been condemned by at least two popes and any changes at all - no matter the rationale - have been condemned by the Council of Trent! 



Pope Pius VI, Auctorem fidei, Aug. 28. 1794, # 33:
Quote:“The proposition of the synod by which it shows itself eager to remove the cause through which, in part, there has been induced a forgetfulness of the principles relating to the order of the liturgy, by recalling it (the liturgy) to a greater simplicity of rites, by expressing it in the vernacular language, by uttering it in a loud voice…’” – Condemned as rash, offensive to pious ears, insulting to the Church, favorable to the charges of heretics against it.


Pope Pius XII, Mediator Dei, Nov. 20, 1947 #63-64:
Quote:Clearly no sincere Catholic can refuse to accept the formulation of Christian doctrine more recently elaborated and proclaimed as dogmas by the Church, under the inspiration and guidance of the Holy Spirit with abundant fruit for souls, because it pleases him to hark back to the old formulas. No more can any Catholic in his right senses repudiate existing legislation of the Church to revert to prescriptions based on the earliest sources of canon law. Just as obviously unwise and mistaken is the zeal of one who in matters liturgical would go back to the rites and usage of antiquity, discarding the new patterns introduced by disposition of divine Providence to meet the changes of circumstances and situation.

This way of acting bids fair to revive the exaggerated and senseless antiquarianism to which the illegal Council of Pistoia gave rise. It likewise attempts to reinstate a series of errors which were responsible for the calling of that meeting as well as for those resulting from it, with grievous harm to souls, and which the Church, the ever watchful guardian of the "deposit of faith" committed to her charge by her divine Founder, had every right and reason to condemn. For perverse designs and ventures of this sort tend to paralyze and weaken that process of sanctification by which the sacred liturgy directs the sons of adoption to their Heavenly Father of their souls' salvation.


Pope Paul III, Council of Trent, Session 7, Can. 13, ex cathedra
Quote:“If anyone shall say that the received and approved rites of the Catholic Church accustomed to be used in the solemn administration of the sacraments may be disdained or omitted by the minister without sin and at pleasure, or may be changed by any pastor of the churches to other new ones: let him be anathema.”
"So let us be confident, let us not be unprepared, let us not be outflanked, let us be wise, vigilant, fighting against those who are trying to tear the faith out of our souls and morality out of our hearts, so that we may remain Catholics, remain united to the Blessed Virgin Mary, remain united to the Roman Catholic Church, remain faithful children of the Church."- Abp. Lefebvre
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#13
Dr. Carol Byrne: A Series on the History of the Dialogue Mass
The German Bishops Attack, Pius XII Capitulates

Taken from here. All emphasis in the original.


Soon after he became Pope, Pius XII had to face a United Front of German Bishops that was adamant about promoting “active participation” in the liturgy in defiance of ecclesiastical law.

Numerous liturgical abuses were already flourishing unchecked in their dioceses, fueled by the subversive efforts of progressivist liturgists and theologians from the German-speaking lands: notably Abbot Herwegen and Dom Odo Casel of the Benedictine Abbey Maria Laach, Frs. Augustin Bea, Romano Guardini, Karl Rahner, Joseph Jungmann and Pius Parsch. In spite of the reigning liturgical anarchy, the German Episcopal Conference, headed by Card. Bertram, took the Liturgical Movement under its wing in 1940 and created its own Liturgical Commission, which operated independently from the Holy See.


[Image: F087_Grober.jpg]
Archbishop Gröber strongly denounced the progressivist innovations, but lost the battle...


To form an idea of how far the mutinous German Bishops had plunged their dioceses into liturgical chaos, we can consult the 1943 Memorandum (1) written by Archbishop Conrad Gröber of Freiburg addressed to the German and Austrian Bishops and also to the Roman Curia.

Archbishop Gröber had broken ranks with his confreres in the Episcopal Conference and vehemently denounced the radical innovations in doctrine and liturgy practised by the reformers. He was voicing the complaints of many German Catholics who objected to liturgical changes in their parishes.

In his Memorandum he showed how the Liturgical Movement was a showcase for liturgical corruption directly related to the adoption of Protestant principles, (2) thus creating a lethally divisive culture of schism within the clergy. (3) It is noteworthy, though not surprising, that all the doctrinal deviations Archbishop Gröber mentioned as prevalent in 1943 were an exact replica of those that influenced the creation of the Novus Ordo of 1969. After all, many of the key figures of the Liturgical Movement would be promoted as periti (experts) at Vatican II.

As for the liturgical abuses, we can consider one of the most egregious – the singing of hymns in the vernacular during Mass, which was a long-standing custom in Germany. According to Archbishop Gröber, the German Bishops insisted on vocal participation of the congregation – even to the point of making it obligatory – and the use of German in the Mass.

The fact that this had been expressly prohibited by Popes Leo XIII and Pius X and confirmed in the Code of Canon Law (4) was completely ignored. Even though the Holy See, since the Council of Trent, reserved to itself the right of legislation in the domain of the liturgy, orders from Rome were regarded by the German Bishops as an intolerable intrusion of papal legislation and a threat to their supposed autonomy.


Pius XII Hoisted the White Flag

In 1943, the following demands were made to the Holy See by Card. Adolf Bertram on behalf of the German Bishops:
  • Approval for the Mass to be sung by the congregation in the vernacular;
  • A new and simpler Latin Psalter for the Breviary;
  • Extensive use of the vernacular in the Ritual (for use in the Sacraments, Blessings, Exorcisms etc.);
  • Celebration of the Easter Vigil ceremonies in the evening.

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Card. Bertram, second left, an adept of Hitler, and also of progressivist changes in the liturgy


Pius XII must have been aware that these abuses were already in vogue in Germany, as in addition to Archbishop Gröber’s analysis, strong objections had been published by conservative priests representing the concerns of the laity. (5) Nevertheless, Card. Bertram hoped to put pressure on Pius XII to authorize these reforms, and, as events have shown, his hopes were fulfilled.

He received an immediate reply from the Vatican permitting the High Mass (Deutsches Hochamt) to be sung in German by the congregation. So what had been illicitly done in defiance of Canon Law up to 1943 suddenly became an approved practice.

It was the same principle under which Paul VI would capitulate to pressure for Communion in the hand, Mass facing the people, laicization of priests etc. Regulations were being widely flouted, so why bother trying to maintain the rules?


A ‘Roll Your Own’ Liturgy

As for the other demands, the following concessions were readily made:
  • The Holy See approved the Dialogue Mass (Gemeinschaftsmesse) and left the vernacularized “Community Mass” (Betsingmesse) to the discretion of the German Bishops;
  • A German-language Ritual was approved;
  • Fr. Augustin Bea was appointed to oversee the production of a new, non-traditional Psalter, which Pius XII personally approved in 1945; (6)
  • The reform of the Easter Vigil would soon be granted. The traditional ceremonies were drastically curtailed and an opportunity for “active participation” was provided by a complete innovation, the “Renewal of Baptismal Promises” recited in the vernacular.
1943 will go down in history as the year in which the Church at last gave in to the Zeitgeist or spirit of Progressivism that had been threatening to engulf her since the time of Pius X. The German Bishops were demanding the freedom to “do their own thing.” And so the authority of the Roman Pontiff and the sacredness of the traditional liturgy had to be set aside to accommodate a changing and worldly liturgy said in the vernacular, which would enshrine the Cult of Man.

Let us not forget about the impact of these papal concessions on the traditionally-minded Catholics of Germany: The rug was pulled from under their feet as they found themselves disavowed by their Holy Father.


Fishing in Dangerous Waters

The whole enterprise was an ecclesiastical disaster in the making. The Pope tried to control the German Episcopal Conference by reprimanding liturgical abuses, imposing shambolic restrictions and experimental periods. But the German Bishops tossed them all aside to indulge in unlimited freedom to regulate their own liturgies.


[Image: F087_pius.jpg]
An apparent conservative Pius XII capitulated to the German Bishops


It is obvious that these papal actions against dissident reformers, while tolerating their abuses, were totally illogical: The message was fatally mixed. If infringing Canon Law and disobeying papal commands could be so easily tolerated in Germany, why should progressivists elsewhere be targeted for papal criticism? And if using the vernacular in the German-speaking lands was widely permitted, why should the inhabitants of other countries be prevented from using their own languages in the liturgy?

Even though Latin remained “officially” the language of the liturgy, the situation quickly descended into farcical chaos. There followed a concerted effort in the 1940s to storm the Vatican. Overwhelmed with requests from many countries, Pius XII increasingly permitted the use of the vernacular in the liturgy. (7) For those who decided to short-circuit the system and not bother to ask permission, no action would be taken against them for breaking the law.

The same scenario would be repeated after Vatican II with permission for altar girls, Communion under both species etc. when Popes rewarded disobedience and encouraged contempt of ecclesiastical law.


A French and German Pincer Movement

The 1940s were also a time when national hierarchies – particularly the French and German – were rallying their combined forces to mount an all-out assault on Roman control of liturgy. It may seem to some people surprising or a trifle hyperbolic that the language of battle should be employed to characterize the situation, but it cannot be denied that the pre-Vatican II reformers saw their mission in these terms.

One of Dom Beauduin’s companions in arms, Fr. Pie Duployé, stated in 1951 after attending the First International Liturgical Week at the German Benedictine Abbey of Maria Laach: “If they knew in Rome that Paris and Trier [the centres of the French and German reformist movements] were marching together, that would be the end of the hegemony of the Congregation of Rites.” (8)

These are certainly fighting words, revealing the intention of the Liturgical Movement to wrest control of the liturgy from the Holy See, yet they were not matched by any joint action or correspondingly militant spirit of opposition from the Vatican. There was no one there to fight the battles that needed to be fought.

Faced with mounting pressure from the leaders of various liturgical cabals, Pius XII would blow an “uncertain trumpet” (9) in Mediator Dei and follow a policy of appeasement.

Continued


1. Hubert Jedin, History of the Church, London: Burns and Oates, 1981, vol. 10, p. 303.

2. These included presenting the essence of the Mass as a Meal; exaggerating the priesthood of the laity and promoting the notion that “it is the community that celebrates;” disparaging the ministerial priesthood and reducing the role of the priest to one delegated by the parish to preside at Mass; rejecting private Masses and devotional prayers (the Rosary, Stations, etc); extending the limits of the Church to include Protestants, considering heretical sects part of the Church; redefining the faith as no longer belief in revealed truths, but an experience, an emotion.

3. Feelings rose high on both sides of the divide. Following the instructions of Card. Innitzer of Austria, Karl Rahner, then in Vienna, wrote a 53-page letter of protest to Archbishop Gröber, a copy of which was sent to all the German and Austrian Bishops. (See William Dych, Karl Rahner, Continnuum 3 PL, New York, 2000, p. 9) Romano Guardini also attempted to counter Archbishop Gröber’s criticism of the Liturgical Movement in a letter to Bishop Stohr of Mainz. (See La Maison-Dieu, Paris: Editions du Cerf , 1945, vol. 3, pp. 7-25) Bishop Stohr was head of the German Liturgical Commission, an organization that had been set up in 1940 independently of the Holy See. It provided a vehicle for communication among the leading members of the German Liturgical Movement and a common front against attacks on the Movement.

4. The singing of hymns in the vernacular during Mass had been expressly forbidden by Leo XIII in the General Decree of the Congregation of Rites, 22 May 1894.  St. Pius X stated: “The language proper to the Roman Church is Latin. Hence it is forbidden to sing anything whatever in the vernacular in solemn liturgical functions.” (Motu proprio Tra le Sollecitudini, 1903, § 7)

5. The prescriptions of the Motu proprio of St. Pius X have been confirmed also by the 1917 Codex Juris Canonici. Canon 2 prescribes: “All liturgical laws are still in force.” (Omnes liturgicae leges vim suam retinent); Canon 1264, n.1: “Liturgical laws pertaining to the sacred music must be observed,” (Leges liturgicae circa musicam sacram serventur);
See Fr. Max Kassiepe OMI, Irrwege und Umwege im Frömmigkeitsleben der Gegenwart, (Wrong Turns and Detours in Contemporary Spiritual Life), Kevelaer, vol. 1 (1939), vol. 2 (1940). Fr. Kassiepe specifically mentioned changes to the Confiteor and Agnus Dei, the Easter Vigil held on Saturday night, priests who used German in the liturgy for the Missa Cantata and the Missa Recitata and unjust criticism of the faithful who recited the Rosary or made the Stations of the Cross.

6. See also Fr. August Dörner, Sentire cum Ecclesia . Ein dringender Aufruf und Weckruf an Priester (An Urgent Wake-up Call to Priests), Kühlen, Mönchengladbach, 1941);
This did not satisfy the German Bishops. At the request of the German Episcopal Conference, Fr. Romano Guardini produced a new Psalter (Deutscher Psalter) in 1950 in the vernacular.

7.Vernacular versions of the Ritual were permitted by the Vatican in Germany (1943 and 1950), France (1946 and 1947), and the USA (1954), Liège (1948). In 1949, permission was granted to China for the Mass in Chinese. In 1950, India received permission to use Hindu for the celebration of the Sacraments.

8. Apud Denis Crouan, The History and the Future of the Roman Liturgy, Ignatius Press, 2005, p. 136. The 1959 Congress was jointly sponsored by the Centre de Pastorale Liturgique in Paris and the Liturgical Institute of Trier, Germany. The main theme of discussion at the Congress was “The Problem of the Roman Missal.” Many ideas discussed at the International Liturgical Weeks found their way into Vatican II’s Constitution on the Liturgy and Gaudium et spes.

9. 1 Corinthians 14:8: “For if the trumpet give an uncertain sound, who shall prepare himself to the battle?”
"So let us be confident, let us not be unprepared, let us not be outflanked, let us be wise, vigilant, fighting against those who are trying to tear the faith out of our souls and morality out of our hearts, so that we may remain Catholics, remain united to the Blessed Virgin Mary, remain united to the Roman Catholic Church, remain faithful children of the Church."- Abp. Lefebvre
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