St. Augustine: Expositions on the Psalms
[Image: ODAwLmpwZw]

St. Augustine: Expositions on the Psalms
Taken from here.

Exposition on Psalm 1

1. Blessed is the man that has not gone away in the counsel of the ungodly Psalm 1:1. This is to be understood of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Lord Man. Blessed is the man that has not gone away in the counsel of the ungodly, as the man of earth did, 1 Corinthians 15:47 who consented to his wife deceived by the serpent, to the transgressing the commandment of God. Nor stood in the way of sinners. For He came indeed in the way of sinners, by being born as sinners are; but He stood not therein, for that the enticements of the world held Him not. And has not sat in the seat of pestilence. He willed not an earthly kingdom, with pride, which is well taken for the seat of pestilence; for that there is hardly any one who is free from the love of rule, and craves not human glory. For a pestilence is disease widely spread, and involving all or nearly all. Yet the seat of pestilence may be more appropriately understood of hurtful doctrine; whose word spreads as a canker. 2 Timothy 2:17 The order too of the words must be considered: went away, stood, sat. For he went away, when he drew back from God. He stood, when he took pleasure in sin. He sat, when, confirmed in his pride, he could not go back, unless set free by Him, who neither has gone away in the counsel of the ungodly, nor stood in the way of sinners, nor sat in the seat of pestilence.

2. But his delight is in the law of the Lord, and in His law will he meditate by day and by night Psalm 1:2. The law is not made for a righteous man, 1 Timothy 1:9 says the Apostle. But it is one thing to be in the law, another under the law. Whoever is in the law, acts according to the law; whoever is under the law, is acted upon according to the law: the one therefore is free, the other a slave. Again, the law, which is written and imposed upon the servant, is one thing; the law, which is mentally discerned by him who needs not its letter, is another thing. He will meditate by day and by night, is to be understood either as without ceasing; or by day in joy, by night in tribulations. For it is said, Abraham saw my day, and was glad: John 8:5-6 and of tribulation it is said, my reins also have instructed me, even unto the night.

3. And he shall be like a tree planted hard by the running streams of waters Psalm 1:3; that is either Very Wisdom, Proverbs viii which vouchsafed to assume man's nature for our salvation; that as man He might be the tree planted hard by the running streams of waters; for in this sense can that too be taken which is said in another Psalm, the river of God is full of water. Or by the Holy Ghost, of whom it is said, He shall baptize you in the Holy Ghost; Matthew 3:11 and again, If any man thirst, let him come unto Me, and drink; John 7:37 and again, If you knew the gift of God, and who it is that asks water of you, you would have asked of Him, and He would have given you living water, of which whoever drinks shall never thirst, but it shall be made in him a well of water springing up into everlasting life. Or, by the running streams of waters may be by the sins of the people, because first the waters are called peoples in the Apocalypse; Revelation 17:15 and again, by running stream is not unreasonably understood fall, which has relation to sin. That tree then, that is, our Lord, from the running streams of water, that is, from the sinful people's drawing them by the way into the roots of His discipline, will bring forth fruit, that is, will establish Churches; in His season, that is, after He has been glorified by His Resurrection and Ascension into heaven. For then, by the sending of the Holy Ghost to the Apostles, and by the confirming of their faith in Him, and their mission to the world, He made the Churches to bring forth fruit. His leaf also shall not fall, that is, His Word shall not be in vain. For, all flesh is grass, and the glory of man as the flower of grass; the grass withers, and the flower falls, but the word of the Lord abides forever. Isaiah 40:6-8 And whatsoever He does shall prosper that is, whatsoever that tree shall bear; which all must be taken of fruit and leaves, that is, deeds and words.

4. The ungodly are not so, they are not so, but are like the dust which the wind casts forth from the face of the earth Psalm 1:4. The earth is here to be taken as that steadfastness in God, with a view to which it is said, The Lord is the portion of mine inheritance, yea, I have a goodly heritage. With a view to this it is said, Wait on the Lord and keep His ways, and He shall exalt you to inherit the earth. With a view to this it is said, Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth. Matthew 5:5 A comparison too is derived hence, for as this visible earth supports and contains the outer man, so that earth invisible the inner man. From the face of which earth the wind casts forth the ungodly, that is, pride, in that it puffs him up. On his guard against which he, who was inebriated by the richness of the house of the Lord, and drunken of the torrent stream of its pleasures, says, Let not the foot of pride come against me. From this earth pride cast forth him who said, I will place my seat in the north, and I will be like the Most High. Isaiah 14:13-14 From the face of the earth it cast forth him also who, after that he had consented and tasted of the forbidden tree that he might be as God, hid himself from the Face of God. Genesis 3:8 That his earth has reference to the inner man, and that man is cast forth thence by pride, may be particularly seen in that which is written, Why is earth and ashes proud? Because, in his life, he cast forth his bowels. Sirach 10:9 For, whence he has been cast forth, he is not unreasonably said to have cast forth himself.

5. Therefore the ungodly rise not in the judgment Psalm 1:5: therefore, namely, because as dust they are cast forth from the face of the earth. And well did he say that this should be taken away from them, which in their pride they court, namely, that they may judge; so that this same idea is more clearly expressed in the following sentence, nor sinners in the counsel of the righteous. For it is usual for what goes before, to be thus repeated more clearly. So that by sinners should be understood the ungodly; what is before in the judgment, should be here in the counsel of the righteous. Or if indeed the ungodly are one thing, and sinners another, so that although every ungodly man is a sinner, yet every sinner is not ungodly; The ungodly rise not in the judgment, that is, they shall rise indeed, but not that they should be judged, for they are already appointed to most certain punishment. But sinners do not rise in counsel of the just, that is, that they may judge, but perhaps that they may be judged; so as of these it were said, The fire shall try every man's work of what sort it is. If any man's work abide, he shall receive a reward. If any man's work shall be burned, he shall then suffer loss: but he himself shall be saved; yet so as by fire.

6. For the Lord knows the way of the righteous Psalm 1:6. As it is said, medicine knows health, but knows not disease, and yet disease is recognised by the art of medicine. In like manner can it be said that the Lord knows the way of the righteous, but the way of the ungodly He knows not. Not that the Lord is ignorant of anything, and yet He says to sinners, I never knew you. Matthew 7:23 But the way of the ungodly shall perish; is the same as if it were said, the way of the ungodly the Lord knows not. But it is expressed more plainly that this should be not to be known of the Lord, namely, to perish; and this to be known of the Lord, namely, to abide; so as that to be should appertain to the knowledge of God, but to His not knowing not to be. For the Lord says, I Am that I Am, and, I Am has sent me."
"So let us be confident, let us not be unprepared, let us not be outflanked, let us be wise, vigilant, fighting against those who are trying to tear the faith out of our souls and morality out of our hearts, so that we may remain Catholics, remain united to the Blessed Virgin Mary, remain united to the Roman Catholic Church, remain faithful children of the Church."- Abp. Lefebvre
Exposition on Psalm 2
Taken from here

1. Why do the heathen rage, and the people meditate vain things? Psalm 2:1. The kings of the earth have stood up, and the rulers taken counsel together, against the Lord, and against His Christ Psalm 2:2. It is said, why? as if it were said, in vain. For what they wished, namely, Christ's destruction, they accomplished not; for this is spoken of our Lord's persecutors, of whom also mention is made in the Acts of the Apostles. Acts 4:26

2. Let us break their bonds asunder, and cast away their yoke from us Psalm 2:3. Although it admits of another acceptation, yet is it more fitly understood as in the person of those who are said to meditate vain things. So that let us break their bonds asunder, and cast away their yoke from us, may be, let us do our endeavour, that the Christian religion do not bind us, nor be imposed upon us.

3. He that dwells in the heavens shall laugh them to scorn, and the Lord shall have them in derision Psalm 2:4. The sentence is repeated; for He who dwells in the heavens, is afterwards put, the Lord; and for shall laugh them to scorn, is afterwards put, shall have them in derision. Nothing of this however must be taken in a carnal sort, as if God either laughs with cheek, or derides with nostril; but it is to be understood of that power which He gives to His saints, that they seeing things to come, namely, that the Name and rule of Christ is to pervade posterity and possess all nations, should understand that those men meditate a vain thing. For this power whereby these things are foreknown is God's laughter and derision. He that dwells in the heavens shall laugh them to scorn. If by heavens we understand holy souls, by these God, as foreknowing what is to come, will laugh them to scorn, and have them in derision.

4. Then He shall speak unto them in His wrath, and vex them in His sore displeasure Psalm 2:5. For showing more clearly how He will speak unto them, he added, He will vex them; so that in His wrath, is, in His sore displeasure. But by the wrath and sore displeasure of the Lord God must not be understood any mental perturbation; but the might whereby He most justly avenges, by the subjection of all creation to His service. For that is to be observed and remembered which is written in the Wisdom of Solomon, But You, Lord of power, judgest with tranquillity, and with great favour orders us. Wisdom 12:18 The wrath of God then is an emotion which is produced in the soul which knows the law of God, when it sees this same law transgressed by the sinner. For by this emotion of righteous souls many things are avenged. Although the wrath of God can be well understood of that darkening of the mind, which overtakes those who transgress the law of God.

5. Yet am I set by Him as King upon Sion, His holy hill, preaching His decree Psalm 2:6. This is clearly spoken in the Person of the very Lord our Saviour Christ. But if Sion signify, as some interpret, beholding, we must not understand it of anything rather than of the Church, where daily is the desire raised of beholding the bright glory of God, according to that of the Apostle, but we with open face beholding the glory of the Lord. 2 Corinthians 3:18 Therefore the meaning of this is, Yet I am set by Him as King over His holy Church; which for its eminence and stability He calls a mountain. Yet I am set by Him as King. I, that is, whose bands they were meditating to break asunder, and whose yoke to cast away. Preaching His decree. Who does not see the meaning of this, seeing it is daily practised?

6. The Lord has said to me, You are My Son, today have I begotten You Psalm 2:7. Although that day may also seem to be prophetically spoken of, on which Jesus Christ was born according to the flesh; and in eternity there is nothing past as if it had ceased to be, nor future as if it were not yet, but present only, since whatever is eternal, always is; yet as today intimates presentiality, a divine interpretation is given to that expression, Today have I begotten You, whereby the uncorrupt and Catholic faith proclaims the eternal generation of the power and Wisdom of God, who is the Only-begotten Son.

7. Ask of Me, and I shall give You the nations for Your inheritance Psalm 2:8. This has at once a temporal sense with reference to the Manhood which He took on Himself, who offered up Himself as a Sacrifice in the stead of all sacrifices, who also makes intercession for us; so that the words, ask of Me, may be referred to all this temporal dispensation, which has been instituted for mankind, namely, that the nations should be joined to the Name of Christ, and so be redeemed from death, and possessed by God. I shall give You the nations for Your inheritance, which so possess them for their salvation, and to bear unto You spiritual fruit. And the uttermost parts of the earth for Your possession. The same repeated, The uttermost parts of the earth, is put for the nations; but more clearly, that we might understand all the nations. And Your possession stands for Your inheritance.

8. You shall rule them with a rod of iron, with inflexible justice, and You shall break them like a potter's vessel Psalm 2:9; that is, You shall break in them earthly lusts, and the filthy doings of the old man, and whatsoever has been derived and inured from the sinful clay. And now understand, you kings Psalm 2:10. And now; that is, being now renewed, your covering of clay worn out, that is, the carnal vessels of error which belong to your past life, now understand, you who now are kings; that is, able now to govern all that is servile and brutish in you, able now too to fight, not as they who beat the air, but chastening your bodies, and bringing them into subjection. 1 Corinthians 9:26-27 Be instructed, all you who judge the earth. This again is a repetition; Be instructed is instead of understand; and you who judge the earth instead of you kings. For He signifies the spiritual by those who judge the earth. For whatsoever we judge, is below us; and whatsoever is below the spiritual man, is with good reason called the earth; because it is defiled with earthly corruption.

9. Serve the Lord with fear; lest what is said, You kings and judges of the earth, turn into pride: And rejoice with trembling Psalm 2:11. Very excellently is rejoice added, lest serve the Lord with fear should seem to tend to misery. But again, lest this same rejoicing should run on to unrestrained inconsiderateness, there is added with trembling, that it might avail for a warning, and for the careful guarding of holiness. It can also be taken thus, And now you kings understand; that is, And now that I am set as King, be not sad, kings of the earth, as if your excellency were taken from you, but rather understand and be instructed. For it is expedient for you, that you should be under Him, by whom understanding and instruction are given you. And this is expedient for you, that you lord it not with rashness, but that you serve the Lord of all with fear, and rejoice in bliss most sure and most pure, with all caution and carefulness, lest you fall therefrom into pride.

10. Lay hold of discipline, lest at any time the Lord be angry, and you perish from the righteous way Psalm 2:12. This is the same as, understand, and, be instructed. For to understand and be instructed, this is to lay hold of discipline. Still in that it is said, lay hold of, it is plainly enough intimated that there is some protection and defense against all things which might do hurt unless with so great carefulness it be laid hold of. Lest at any time the Lord be angry, is expressed with a doubt, not as regards the vision of the prophet to whom it is certain, but as regards those who are warned; for they, to whom it is not openly revealed, are wont to think with doubt of the anger of God. This then they ought to say to themselves, let us lay hold of discipline, lest at any time the Lord be angry, and we perish from the righteous way. Now, how the Lord be angry is to be taken, has been said above. And you perish from the righteous way. This is a great punishment, and dreaded by those who have had any perception of the sweetness of righteousness; for he who perishes from the way of righteousness, in much misery will wander through the ways of unrighteousness.

11. When His anger shall be shortly kindled, blessed are all they who put their trust in Him; that is, when the vengeance shall come which is prepared for the ungodly and for sinners, not only will it not light on those who put their trust in the Lord, but it will even avail for the foundation and exaltation of a kingdom for them. For he said not, When His anger shall be shortly kindled, safe are all they who put their trust in Him, as though they should have this only thereby, to be exempt from punishment; but he said, blessed; in which there is the sum and accumulation of all good things. Now the meaning of shortly I suppose to be this, that it will be something sudden, while sinners will deem it far off and long to come.
"So let us be confident, let us not be unprepared, let us not be outflanked, let us be wise, vigilant, fighting against those who are trying to tear the faith out of our souls and morality out of our hearts, so that we may remain Catholics, remain united to the Blessed Virgin Mary, remain united to the Roman Catholic Church, remain faithful children of the Church."- Abp. Lefebvre
Exposition on Psalm 3
Taken from here

A psalm of David, when he fled from the face of Abessalon his son.

1. The words, I slept, and took rest; and rose, for the Lord will take me up, lead us to believe that this Psalm is to be understood as in the Person of Christ; for they sound more applicable to the Passion and Resurrection of our Lord, than to that history in which David's flight is described from the face of his rebellious son. And, since it is written of Christ's disciples, The sons of the bridegroom fast not as long as the bridegroom is with them; Matthew 9:15 it is no wonder if by his undutiful son be here meant that undutiful disciple who betrayed Him. From whose face although it may be understood historically that He fled, when on his departure He withdrew with the rest to the mountain; yet in a spiritual sense, when the Son of God, that is the Power and Wisdom of God, abandoned the mind of Judas; when the Devil wholly occupied him; as it is written, The Devil entered into his heart, John 13:27 may it be well understood that Christ fled from his face; not that Christ gave place to the Devil, but that on Christ's departure the Devil took possession. Which departure, I suppose, is called a flight in this Psalm, because of its quickness; which is indicated also by the word of our Lord, saying, That you do, do quickly. John 13:27 So even in common conversation we say of anything that does not come to mind, it has fled from me; and of a man of much learning we say, nothing flies from him. Wherefore truth fled from the mind of Judas, when it ceased to enlighten him. But Absalom, as some interpret, in the Latin tongue signifies, Patris pax, a father's peace. And it may seem strange, whether in the history of the kings, when Absalom carried on war against his father; or in the history of the New Testament, when Judas was the betrayer of our Lord; how father's peace can be understood. But both in the former place they who read carefully, see that David in that war was at peace with his son, who even with sore grief lamented his death, saying, O Absalom, my son, would God I had died for you! 2 Samuel 18:33 And in the history of the New Testament by that so great and so wonderful forbearance of our Lord; in that He bore so long with him as if good, when He was not ignorant of his thoughts; in that He admitted him to the Supper in which He committed and delivered to His disciples the figure of His Body and Blood; finally, in that He received the kiss of peace at the very time of His betrayal; it is easily understood how Christ showed peace to His betrayer, although he was laid waste by the intestine war of so abominable a device. And therefore is Absalom called father's peace, because his father had the peace, which he had not.

2. O Lord, how are they multiplied that trouble me! Psalm 3:1. So multiplied indeed were they, that one even from the number of His disciples was not wanting, who was added to the number of His persecutors. Many rise up against me; many say unto my soul, There is no salvation for him in his God Psalm 3:2. It is clear that if they had had any idea that He would rise again, assuredly they would not have slain Him. To this end are those speeches, Let Him come down from the cross, if He be the Son of God; and again, He saved others, Himself He cannot save. Matthew 27:42 Therefore, neither would Judas have betrayed Him, if he had not been of the number of those who despised Christ, saying, There is no salvation for Him in His God.

3. But You, O Lord, art my taker. It is said to God in the nature of man, for the taking of man is, the Word made Flesh. My glory. Even He calls God his glory, whom the Word of God so took, that God became one with Him. Let the proud learn, who unwillingly hear, when it is said to them, For what have you that you did not receive? Now if you received it, why do you glory as if you had not received it? 1 Corinthians 4:7 And the lifter up of my head Psalm 3:3. I think that this should be here taken of the human mind, which is not unreasonably called the head of the soul; which so inhered in, and in a sort coalesced with, the supereminent excellency of the Word taking man, that it was not laid aside by so great humiliation of the Passion.

4. With my voice have I cried unto the Lord Psalm 3:4; that is, not with the voice of the body, which is drawn out with the sound of the reverberation of the air; but with the voice of the heart, which to men speaks not, but with God sounds as a cry. By this voice Susanna was heard; and with this voice the Lord Himself commanded that prayer should be made in closets, Matthew 6:6 that is, in the recesses of the heart noiselessly. Nor would one easily say that prayer is not made with this voice, if no sound of words is uttered from the body; since even when in silence we pray within the heart, if thoughts interpose alien from the mind of one praying, it cannot yet be said, With my voice have I cried unto the Lord. Nor is this rightly said, save when the soul alone, taking to itself nothing of the flesh, and nothing of the aims of the flesh, in prayer, speaks to God, where He only hears. But even this is called a cry by reason of the strength of its intention. And He heard me out of His holy mountain. We have the Lord Himself called a mountain by the Prophet, as it is written, The stone that was cut out without hands grew to the size of a mountain. Daniel 2:34-35 But this cannot be taken of His Person, unless perhaps He would speak thus, out of myself, as of His holy mountain He heard me, when He dwelt in me, that is, in this very mountain. But it is more plain and unembarrassed, if we understand that God out of His justice heard. For it was just that He should raise again from the dead the Innocent who was slain, and to whom evil had been recompensed for good, and that He should render to the persecutor a meet reward, who repaid Him evil for good. For we read, Your justice is as the mountains of God.

5. I slept, and took rest Psalm 3:5. It may be not unsuitably remarked, that it is expressly said, I, to signify that of His own Will He underwent death, according to that, Therefore does My Father love Me, because I lay down My life, that I might take it again. No man takes it from Me; I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again. John 10:17-18 Therefore, says He, you have not taken Me as though against My will, and slain Me; but I slept, and took rest; and rose, for the Lord will take me up. Scripture contains numberless instances of sleep being put for death; as the Apostle says, I would not have you to be ignorant, brethren, concerning them which are asleep. 1 Thessalonians 4:13 Nor need we make any question why it is added, took rest, seeing that it has already been said, I slept. Repetitions of this kind are usual in Scripture, as we have pointed out many in the second Psalm. But some copies have, I slept, and was cast into a deep sleep. And different copies express it differently, according to the possible renderings of the Greek words, ἐ γὼ δš ἐκοιμήθην καὶ ὕπνωσα. Unless perhaps sleeping may be taken of one dying, but sleep of one dead: so that sleeping may be the transition into sleep, as awakening is the transition into wakefulness. Let us not deem these repetitions in the sacred writings empty ornaments of speech. I slept, and took rest, is therefore well understood as I gave Myself up to My Passion, and death ensued. And I rose, for the Lord will take Me up. This is the more to be remarked, how that in one sentence the Psalmist has used a verb of past and future time. For he has said, both I rose, which is the past, and will take Me up, which is the future; seeing that assuredly the rising again could not be without that taking up. But in prophecy the future is well joined to the past, whereby both are signified. Since things which are prophesied of as yet to come in reference to time are future; but in reference to the knowledge of those who prophesy they are already to be viewed as done. Verbs of the present tense are also mixed in, which shall be treated of in their proper place when they occur.

6. I will not fear the thousands of people that surround me Psalm 3:6. It is written in the Gospels how great a multitude stood around Him as He was suffering, and on the cross. Arise, O Lord, save me, O my God Psalm 3:7. It is not said to God, Arise, as if asleep or lying down, but it is usual in holy Scripture to attribute to God what He does in us; not indeed universally, but where it can be done suitably; as when He is said to speak, when by His gift Prophets speak, and Apostles, or whatsoever messengers of the truth. Hence that text, Would you have proof of Christ, who speaks in me? 2 Corinthians 13:3 For he does not say, of Christ, by whose enlightening or order I speak; but he attributes at once the speaking itself to Him, by whose gift he spoke.

7. Since You have smitten all who oppose me without a cause. It is not to be pointed as if it were one sentence, Arise, O Lord, save me, O my God; since You have smitten all who oppose me without a cause. For He did not therefore save Him, because He smote His enemies; but rather He being saved, He smote them. Therefore it belongs to what follows, so that the sense is this; Since You have smitten all who oppose me without a cause, You have broken the teeth of the sinners; that is, thereby have You broken the teeth of the sinners, since You have smitten all who oppose me. It is forsooth the punishment of the opposers, whereby their teeth have been broken, that is, the words of sinners rending with their cursing the Son of God, brought to nought, as it were to dust; so that we may understand teeth thus, as words of cursing. Of which teeth the Apostle speaks, If you bite one another, take heed that you be not consumed one of another. Galatians 5:15 The teeth of sinners can also be taken as the chiefs of sinners; by whose authority each one is cut off from the fellowship of godly livers, and as it were incorporated with evil livers. To these teeth are opposed the Church's teeth, by whose authority believers are cut off from the error of the Gentiles and various opinions, and are translated into that fellowship which is the body of Christ. With these teeth Peter was told to eat the animals when they had been killed, that is, by killing in the Gentiles what they were, and changing them into what he was himself. Of these teeth too of the Church it is said, Your teeth are as a flock of shorn sheep, coming up from the bath, whereof every one bears twins, and there is not one barren among them. These are they who prescribe rightly, and as they prescribe, live; who do what is written, Let your works shine before men, that they may bless your Father which is in heaven. Matthew 5:16 For moved by their authority, they believe God who speaks and works through these men; and separated from the world, to which they were once conformed, they pass over into the members of the Church. And rightly therefore are they, through whom such things are done, called teeth like to shorn sheep; for they have laid aside the burdens of earthly cares, and coming up from the bath, from the washing away of the filth of the world by the Sacrament of Baptism, every one bears twins. For they fulfil the two commandments, of which it is said, On these two commandments hang all the Law and the Prophets; Matthew 22:40 loving God with all their heart, and with all their soul, and with all their mind, and their neighbour as themselves. There is not one barren among them, for much fruit they render unto God. According to this sense then it is to be thus understood, You have broken the teeth of the sinners, that is, You have brought the chiefs of the sinners to nought, by smiting all who oppose Me without a cause. For the chiefs according to the Gospel history persecuted Him, while the lower people honoured Him.

8. Salvation is of the Lord; and upon Your people be Your blessing Psalm 3:8. In one sentence the Psalmist has enjoined men what to believe, and has prayed for believers. For when it is said, Salvation is of the Lord, the words are addressed to men. Nor does it follow, And upon Your people be Your blessing, in such wise as that the whole is spoken to men, but there is a change into prayer addressed to God Himself, for the very people to whom it was said, Salvation is of the Lord. What else then does he say but this? Let no man presume on himself, seeing that it is of the Lord to save from the death of sin; for, Wretched man that I am, who shall deliver me from the body of this death? The grace of God through Jesus Christ our Lord. Romans 7:24-25 But bless, O Lord, Your people, who look for salvation from You.

9. This Psalm can be taken as in the Person of Christ another way; which is that whole Christ should speak. I mean by whole, with His body, of which He is the Head, according to the Apostle, who says, You are the body of Christ, and the members. 1 Corinthians 12:27 He therefore is the Head of this body; wherefore in another place he says, But doing the truth in love, we may increase in Him in all things, who is the Head, Christ, from whom the whole body is joined together and compacted. Ephesians 4:15-16 In the Prophet then at once, the Church, and her Head (the Church founded amidst the storms of persecution throughout the whole world, which we know already to have come to pass), speaks, O Lord, how are they multiplied that trouble me! Many rise up against me; wishing to exterminate the Christian name. Many say unto my soul, There is no salvation for him in his God. For they would not otherwise hope that they could destroy the Church, branching out so very far and wide, unless they believed that God had no care thereof. But You, O Lord, art my taker; in Christ of course. For into that flesh the Church too has been taken by the Word, who was made flesh, and dwelt in us; John 1:14 for that In heavenly places has He made us to sit together with Him. Ephesians 2:6 When the Head goes before, the other members will follow; for, Who shall separate us from the love of Christ? Romans 8:35 Justly then does the Church say, You are my taker. My glory; for she does not attribute her excellency to herself, seeing that she knows by whose grace and mercy she is what she is. And the lifter up of my head, of Him, namely, who, the First-born from the dead, Colossians 1:18 ascended up into heaven. With my voice have I cried unto the Lord, and He heard me out of His holy mountain. This is the prayer of all the Saints, the odour of sweetness, which ascends up in the sight of the Lord. For now the Church is heard out of this mountain, which is also her head; or, out of that justice of God, by which both His elect are set free, and their persecutors punished. Let the people of God also say, I slept, and took rest; and rose, for the Lord will take me up; that they may be joined, and cleave to their Head. For to this people is it said, Awake you that sleepest, and arise from the dead, and Christ shall lay hold on you. Ephesians 5:14 Since they are taken out of sinners, of whom it is said generally, But they that sleep, sleep in the night. 1 Thessalonians 5:7 Let them say moreover, I will not fear the thousands of people that surround me; of the heathen verily that compass me about to extinguish everywhere, if they could, the Christian name. But how should they be feared, when by the blood of the martyrs in Christ, as by oil, the ardour of love is inflamed? Arise, O Lord, save me, O my God. The body can address this to its own Head. For at His rising the body was saved; who ascended up on high, led captivity captive, gave gifts unto men. For this is said by the Prophet, in the secret purpose of God, until that ripe harvest Matthew 9:37 which is spoken of in the Gospel, whose salvation is in His Resurrection, who vouchsafed to die for us, shed out our Lord to the earth. Since You have smitten all who oppose me without a cause, You have broken the teeth of the sinners. Now while the Church has rule, the enemies of the Christian name are smitten with confusion; and, whether their curses or their chiefs, brought to nought. Believe then, O man, that salvation is of the Lord: and, You, O Lord, may Your blessing be upon Your people.

10. Each one too of us may say, when a multitude of vices and lusts leads the resisting mind in the law of sin, O Lord, how are they multiplied that trouble me! Many rise up against me. And, since despair of recovery generally creeps in through the accumulation of vices, as though these same vices were mocking the soul, or even as though the Devil and his angels through their poisonous suggestions were at work to make us despair, it is said with great truth, Many say unto my soul, There is no salvation for him in his God. But You, O Lord, art my taker. For this is our hope, that He has vouchsafed to take the nature of man in Christ. My glory; according to that rule, that no one should ascribe ought to himself. And the lifter up of my head; either of Him, who is the Head of us all, or of the spirit of each several one of us, which is the head of the soul and body. For the head of the woman is the man, and the head of the man is Christ. 1 Corinthians 11:3 But the mind is lifted up, when it can be said already, With the mind I serve the law of God; Romans 7:25 that the rest of man may be reduced to peaceable submission, when in the resurrection of the flesh death is swallowed up in victory. 1 Corinthians 15:54 With my voice I have cried unto the Lord; with that most inward and intensive voice. And He heard me out of His holy mountain; Him, through whom He has succoured us, through whose mediation He hears us. I slept, and took rest; and rose, for the Lord will take me up. Who of the faithful is not able to say this, when he calls to mind the death of his sins, and the gift of regeneration? I will not fear the thousands of people that surround me. Besides those which the Church universally has borne and bears, each one also has temptations, by which, when compassed about, he may speak these words, Arise, O Lord; save me, O my God: that is, make me to arise. Since You have smitten all who oppose me without a cause: it is well in God's determinate purpose said of the Devil and his angels; who rage not only against the whole body of Christ, but also against each one in particular. You have broken the teeth of the sinners. Each man has those that revile him, he has too the prime authors of vice, who strive to cut him off from the body of Christ. But salvation is of the Lord. Pride is to be guarded against, and we must say, My soul cleaved after You. And upon Your people be Your blessing: that is, upon each one of us.
"So let us be confident, let us not be unprepared, let us not be outflanked, let us be wise, vigilant, fighting against those who are trying to tear the faith out of our souls and morality out of our hearts, so that we may remain Catholics, remain united to the Blessed Virgin Mary, remain united to the Roman Catholic Church, remain faithful children of the Church."- Abp. Lefebvre
Exposition on Psalm 4
Taken from here

To the end, a psalm song to David.

1. Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to every one that believes. Romans 10:4 For this end signifies perfection, not consumption. Now it may be a question, whether every Song be a Psalm, or rather every Psalm a Song; whether there are some Songs which cannot be called Psalms, and some Psalms which cannot be called Songs. But the Scripture must be attended to, if haply Song do not denote a joyful theme. But those are called Psalms which are sung to the Psaltery; which the history as a high mystery declares the Prophet David to have used. Of which matter this is not the place to discourse; for it requires prolonged inquiry, and much discussion. Now meanwhile we must look either for the words of the Lord Man after the Resurrection, or of man in the Church believing and hoping on Him.

2. When I called, the God of my righteousness heard me Psalm 4:1. When I called, God heard me, the Psalmist says, of whom is my righteousness. In tribulation You have enlarged me. You have led me from the straits of sadness into the broad ways of joy. For, tribulation and straitness is on every soul of man that does evil. Romans 2:9 But he who says, We rejoice in tribulations, knowing that tribulation works patience; up to that where he says, Because the love of God is shed abroad in our hearts by the Holy Ghost, which is given unto us; he has no straits of heart, they be heaped on him outwardly by them that persecute him. Now the change of person, for that from the third person, where he says, He heard, he passes at once to the second, where he says, You have enlarged me; if it be not done for the sake of variety and grace, it is strange why the Psalmist should first wish to declare to men that he had been heard, and afterwards address Him who heard him. Unless perchance, when he had declared how he was heard, in this very enlargement of heart he preferred to speak with God; that he might even in this way show what it is to be enlarged in heart, that is, to have God already shed abroad in the heart, with whom he might hold converse interiorly. Which is rightly understood as spoken in the person of him who, believing on Christ, has been enlightened; but in that of the very Lord Man, whom the Wisdom of God took, I do not see how this can be suitable. For He was never deserted by It. But as His very prayer against trouble is a sign rather of our infirmity, so also of that sudden enlargement of heart the same Lord may speak for His faithful ones, whom He has personated also when He said, I was an hungered, and you gave Me no meat; I was thirsty, and you gave Me no drink, Matthew 25:42 and so forth. Wherefore here also He can say, You have enlarged me, for one of the least of His, holding converse with God, whose love he has shed abroad in his heart by the Holy Ghost, which is given unto us. Romans 5:5 Have mercy upon me and hear my prayer. Why does he again ask, when already he declared that he had been heard and enlarged? It is for our sakes, of whom it is said, But if we hope for that we see not, we wait in patience; Romans 8:25 or is it, that in him who has believed that which is begun may be perfected?

3. O you sons of men, how long heavy in heart Psalm 4:2. Let your error, says he, have lasted at least up to the coming of the Son of God; why then any longer are you heavy in heart? When will you make an end of crafty wiles, if now when the truth is present ye make it not? Why do ye love vanity, and seek a lie? Why would ye be blessed by the lowest things? Truth alone, from which all things are true, makes blessed. For, vanity is of deceivers, and all is vanity. Ecclesiastes 1:2 What profit has a man of all his labour, wherewith he labours under the sun? Why then are you held back by the love of things temporal? Why follow ye after the last things, as though the first, which is vanity and a lie? For you would have them abide with you, which all pass away, as does a shadow.

4. And know ye that the Lord has magnified his Holy One Psalm 4:3. Whom but Him, whom He raised up from below, and placed in heaven at His right hand? Therefore does he chide mankind, that they would turn at length from the love of this world to Him. But if the addition of the conjunction (for he says, and know ye) is to any a difficulty, he may easily observe in Scripture that this manner of speech is usual in that language, in which the Prophets spoke. For you often find this beginning, And the Lord said to him, And the word of the Lord came to him. Which joining by a conjunction, when no sentence has gone before, to which the following one may be annexed, perhaps admirably conveys to us, that the utterance of the truth in words is connected with that vision which goes on in the heart. Although in this place it may be said, that the former sentence, Why do ye love vanity, and seek a lie? is as if it were written, Do not love vanity, and seek a lie. And being thus read, it follows in the most direct construction, and know ye that the Lord has magnified His Holy One. But the interposition of the Diapsalma forbids our joining this sentence with the preceding one. For whether this be a Hebrew word, as some would have it, which means, so be it; or a Greek word, which marks a pause in the psalmody (so as that Psalma should be what is sung in psalmody, but Diapsalma an interval of silence in the psalmody; that as the coupling of voices in singing is called Sympsalma, so their separation Diapsalma, where a certain pause of interrupted continuity is marked): whether I say it be the former, or the latter, or something else, this at least is probable, that the sense cannot rightly be continued and joined, where the Diapsalma intervenes.

5. The Lord will hear me, when I cry unto Him. I believe that we are here warned, that with great earnestness of heart, that is, with an inward and incorporeal cry, we should implore help of God. For as we must give thanks for enlightenment in this life, so must we pray for rest after this life. Wherefore in the person, either of the faithful preacher of the Gospel, or of our Lord Himself, it may be taken, as if it were written, the Lord will hear you, when you cry unto Him.

6. Be angry, and sin not Psalm 4:4. For the thought occurred, Who is worthy to be heard? Or how shall the sinner not cry in vain unto the Lord? Therefore, Be angry, says he, and sin not. Which may be taken two ways: either, even if you be angry, do not sin; that is, even if there arise an emotion in the soul, which now by reason of the punishment of sin is not in our power, at least let not the reason and the mind, which is after God regenerated within, that with the mind we should serve the law of God, although with the flesh we as yet serve the law of sin, Romans 7:25 consent thereunto; or, repent ye, that is, be ye angry with yourselves for your past sins, and henceforth cease to sin. What you say in your hearts: there is understood, say ye: so that the complete sentence is, What ye say in your hearts, that say ye; that is, be ye not the people of whom it is said, with their lips they honour Me, but their heart is far from Me. Isaiah 29:13 In your chambers be ye pricked. This is what has been expressed already in heart. For this is the chamber, of which our Lord warns us, that we should pray within, with closed doors. Matthew 6:6 But, be ye pricked, refers either to the pain of repentance, that the soul in punishment should prick itself, that it be not condemned and tormented in God's judgment; or, to arousing, that we should awake to behold the light of Christ, as if pricks were made use of. But some say that not, be ye pricked, but, be ye opened, is the better reading; because in the Greek Psalter it is κατανύγητε, which refers to that enlargement of the heart, in order that the shedding abroad of love by the Holy Ghost may be received.

7. Offer the sacrifice of righteousness, and hope in the Lord Psalm 4:5. He says the same in another Psalm, the sacrifice for God is a troubled spirit. Wherefore that this is the sacrifice of righteousness which is offered through repentance it is not unreasonably here understood. For what more righteous, than that each one should be angry with his own sins, rather than those of others, and that in self-punishment he should sacrifice himself unto God? Or are righteous works after repentance the sacrifice of righteousness? For the interposition of Diapsalma not unreasonably perhaps intimates even a transition from the old life to the new life: that on the old man being destroyed or weakened by repentance, the sacrifice of righteousness, according to the regeneration of the new man, may be offered to God; when the soul now cleansed offers and places itself on the altar of faith, to be encompassed by heavenly fire, that is, by the Holy Ghost. So that this may be the meaning, Offer the sacrifice of righteousness, and hope in the Lord; that is, live uprightly, and hope for the gift of the Holy Ghost, that the truth, in which you have believed, may shine upon you.

8. But yet, hope in the Lord, is as yet expressed without explanation. Now what is hoped for, but good things? But since each one would obtain from God that good, which he loves; and they are not easy to be found who love interior goods, that is, which belong to the inward man, which alone should be loved, but the rest are to be used for necessity, not to be enjoyed for pleasure; excellently did he subjoin, when he had said, hope in the Lord Psalm 4:6, Many say, Who shows us good things? This is the speech, and this the daily inquiry of all the foolish and unrighteous; whether of those who long for the peace and quiet of a worldly life, and from the frowardness of mankind find it not; who even in their blindness dare to find fault with the order of events, when involved in their own deservings they deem the times worse than these which are past: or, of those who doubt and despair of that future life, which is promised us; who are often saying, Who knows if it's true? Or, who ever came from below, to tell us this? Very exquisitely then, and briefly, he shows (to those, that is, who have interior sight), what good things are to be sought; answering their question, who say, Who shows us good things? The light of Your countenance, says he, is stamped on us, O Lord. This light is the whole and true good of man, which is seen not with the eye, but with the mind. But he says, stamped on us, as a penny is stamped with the king's image. For man was made after the image and likeness of God, Genesis 1:26 which he defaced by sin: therefore it is his true and eternal good, if by a new birth he be stamped. And I believe this to be the bearing of that which some understand skilfully; I mean, what the Lord said on seeing Cæsar's tribute money, Render to Cæsar the things that are Cæsar's; and to God the things that are God's. Matthew 22:21 As if He had said, In like manner as Cæsar exacts from you the impression of his image, so also does God: that as the tribute money is rendered to him, so should the soul to God, illumined and stamped with the light of His countenance. Psalm 4:7 You have put gladness into my heart. Gladness then is not to be sought without by them, who, being still heavy in heart, love vanity, and seek a lie; but within, where the light of God's countenance is stamped. For Christ dwells in the inner man, Ephesians 3:16-17 as the Apostle says; for to Him does it appertain to see truth, since He has said, I am the truth. John 14:6 And again, when He spoke in the Apostle, saying, Would you receive a proof of Christ, who speaks in me? 2 Corinthians 13:3 He spoke not of course from without to him, but in his very heart, that is, in that chamber where we are to pray.

9. But men (who doubtless are many) who follow after things temporal, know not to say anything else, than, Who shows us good things? when the true and certain good within their very selves they cannot see. Of these accordingly is most justly said, what he adds next: From the time of His grain, of wine, and oil, they have been multiplied. For the addition of His, is not superfluous. For the grain is God's: inasmuch as He is the living bread which came down from heaven. John 6:51 The wine too is God's: for, they shall be inebriated, he says, with the fatness of your house. The oil too is God's: of which it is said, You have fattened my head with oil. But those many, who say, Who shows us good things? and who see not that the kingdom of heaven is within them: these, from the time of His grain, of wine, and oil, are multiplied. For multiplication does not always betoken plentifulness, and not, generally, scantiness: when the soul, given up to temporal pleasures, burns ever with desire, and cannot be satisfied; and, distracted with manifold and anxious thought, is not permitted to see the simple good. Such is the soul of which it is said, For the corruptible body presses down the soul, and the earthly tabernacle weighs down the mind that muses on many things. Wisdom 9:15 A soul like this, by the departure and succession of temporal goods, that is, from the time of His grain, wine, and oil, filled with numberless idle fancies, is so multiplied, that it cannot do that which is commanded, Think on the Lord in goodness, and in simplicity of heart seek Him. Wisdom 1:1 For this multiplicity is strongly opposed to that simplicity. And therefore leaving these, who are many, multiplied, that is, by the desire of things temporal, and who say, Who shows us good things? which are to be sought not with the eyes without, but with simplicity of heart within, the faithful man rejoices and says, In peace, together, I will sleep, and take rest Psalm 4:8. For such men justly hope for all manner of estrangement of mind from things mortal, and forgetfulness of this world's miseries; which is beautifully and prophetically signified under the name of sleep and rest, where the most perfect peace cannot be interrupted by any tumult. But this is not had now in this life, but is to be hoped for after this life. This even the words themselves, which are in the future tense, show us. For it is not said, either, I have slept, and taken rest; or, I do sleep, and take rest; but, I will sleep, and take rest. Then shall this corruptible put on incorruption, and this mortal shall put on immortality; then shall death be swallowed up in victory. 1 Corinthians 15:54 Hence it is said, But if we hope for that we see not, we wait in patience. Romans 8:25

10. Wherefore, consistently with this, he adds the last words, and says, Since You, O Lord, in singleness hast made me dwell in hope. Here he does not say, will make; but, hast made. In whom then this hope now is, there will be assuredly that which is hoped for. And well does he say, in singleness. For this may refer in opposition to those many, who being multiplied from the time of His grain, of wine, and oil, say, Who shows us good things? For this multiplicity perishes, and singleness is observed among the saints: of whom it is said in the Acts of the Apostles, and of the multitude of them that believed, there was one soul, and one heart. Acts 4:32 In singleness, then, and simplicity, removed, that is, from the multitude and crowd of things, that are born and die, we ought to be lovers of eternity, and unity, if we desire to cleave to the one God and our Lord.
"So let us be confident, let us not be unprepared, let us not be outflanked, let us be wise, vigilant, fighting against those who are trying to tear the faith out of our souls and morality out of our hearts, so that we may remain Catholics, remain united to the Blessed Virgin Mary, remain united to the Roman Catholic Church, remain faithful children of the Church."- Abp. Lefebvre
Exposition on Psalm 5
Taken from here

1. The title of the Psalm is, For her who receives the inheritance. The Church then is signified, who receives for her inheritance eternal life through our Lord Jesus Christ; that she may possess God Himself, in cleaving to whom she may be blessed, according to that, Blessed are the meek, for they shall possess the earth. Matthew 5:5 What earth, but that of which it is said, You are my hope, my portion in the land of the living? And again more clearly, The Lord is the portion of mine inheritance and of my cup. And conversely the word Church is said to be God's inheritance according to that, Ask of Me, and I shall give you the heathen for your inheritance. Therefore is God said to be our inheritance, because He feeds and sustains us: and we are said to be God's inheritance, because He orders and rules us. Wherefore it is the voice of the Church in this Psalm called to her inheritance, that she too may herself become the inheritance of the Lord.

2. Hear my words, O Lord Psalm 5:1. Being called she calls upon the Lord; that the same Lord being her helper, she may pass through the wickedness of this world, and attain unto Him. Understand my cry. The Psalmist well shows what this cry is; how from within, from the chamber of the heart, without the body's utterance, it reaches unto God: for the bodily voice is heard, but the spiritual is understood. Although this too may be God's hearing, not with carnal ear, but in the omnipresence of His Majesty.

3. Attend to the voice of my supplication; that is, to that voice, which he makes request that God would understand: of which what the nature is, he has already intimated, when he said, Understand my cry. Attend to the voice of my supplication, my King, and my God Psalm 5:2. Although both the Son is God, and the Father God, and the Father and the Son together One God; and if asked of the Holy Ghost, we must give no other answer than that He is God; and when the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Ghost are mentioned together, we must understand nothing else, than One God; nevertheless Scripture is wont to give the appellation of King to the Son. According then to that which is said, By Me man comes to the Father, John 14:6 rightly is it first, my King; and then, my God. And yet has not the Psalmist said, Attend You; but, Attend. For the Catholic faith preaches not two or three Gods, but the Very Trinity, One God. Not that the same Trinity can be together, now the Father, now the Son, now the Holy Ghost, as Sabellius believed: but that the Father must be none but the Father, and the Son none but the Son, and the Holy Ghost none but the Holy Ghost, and this Trinity but One God. Hence when the Apostle had said, Of whom are all things, by whom are all things, in whom are all things, Romans 11:36 he is believed to have conveyed an intimation of the Very Trinity; and yet he did not add, to Them be glory; but, to Him be glory.

4. Because I will pray unto You Psalm 5:3. O Lord, in the morning You will hear my voice. What does that, which he said above, Hear Thou, mean, as if he desired to be heard immediately? But now he says, in the morning You will hear; not, hear Thou: and, I will pray unto You; not, I do pray unto You: and, as follows, in the morning I will stand by You, and will see; not, I do stand by You, and do see. Unless perhaps his former prayer marks the invocation itself: but being in darkness amidst the storms of this world, he perceives that he does not see what he desires, and yet does not cease to hope, For hope that is seen, is not hope. Romans 8:24 Nevertheless, he understands why he does not see, because the night is not yet past, that is, the darkness which our sins have merited. He says therefore, Because I will pray unto You, O Lord; that is, because You are so mighty to whom I shall make my prayer, in the morning You will hear my voice. You are not He, he says, that can be seen by those, from whose eyes the night of sins is not yet withdrawn: when the night then of my error is past, and the darkness gone, which by my sins I have brought upon myself, then You will hear my voice. Why then did he say above not, You will hear, but hear Thou? Is it that after the Church cried out, hear Thou, and was not heard, she perceived what must needs pass away to enable her to be heard? Or is it that she was heard above, but does not yet understand that she was heard, because she does not yet see by whom she has been heard; and what she now says, In the morning You will hear, she would have thus taken, In the morning I shall understand that I have been heard? Such is that expression, Arise, O Lord, that is, make me arise. But this latter is taken of Christ's resurrection: but at all events that Scripture, The Lord your God proves you, that He may know whether ye love Him, Deuteronomy 13:3 cannot be taken in any other sense, than, that you by Him may know, and that it may be made evident to yourselves, what progress you have made in His love.

5. In the morning I will stand by You, and will see Psalm 5:3. What is, I will stand, but I will not lie down? Now what else is, to lie down, but to take rest on the earth, which is a seeking happiness in earthly pleasures? I will stand by, he says, and will see. We must not then cleave to things earthly, if we would see God, who is beheld by a clean heart. For You are not a God who hast pleasure in iniquity. The malignant man shall not dwell near You, nor shall the unrighteous abide before Your eyes. You have hated all that work iniquity, You will destroy all that speak a lie. The man of blood, and the crafty man, the Lord will abominate Psalm 5:4-6. Iniquity, malignity, lying, homicide, craft, and all the like, are the night of which we speak: on the passing away of which, the morning dawns, that God may be seen. He has unfolded the reason, then, why he will stand by in the morning, and see: For, he says, You are not a God who hast pleasure in iniquity. For if He were a God who had pleasure in iniquity, He could be seen even by the iniquitous, so that He would not be seen in the morning, that is, when the night of iniquity is over.

6. The malignant man shall not dwell near You: that is, he shall not so see, as to cleave to You. Hence follows, Nor shall the unrighteous abide before Your eyes. For their eyes, that is, their mind is beaten back by the light of truth, because of the darkness of their sins; by the habitual practice of which they are not able to sustain the brightness of right understanding. Therefore even they who see sometimes, that is, who understand the truth, are yet still unrighteous, they abide not therein through love of those things, which turn away from the truth. For they carry about with them their night, that is, not only the habit, but even the love, of sinning. But if this night shall pass away, that is, if they shall cease to sin, and this love and habit thereof be put to flight, the morning dawns, so that they not only understand, but also cleave to the truth.

7. You have hated all that work iniquity. God's hatred may be understood from that form of expression, by which every sinner hates the truth. For it seems that she too hates those, whom she suffers not to abide in her. Now they do not abide, who cannot bear the truth. You will destroy all that speak a lie. For this is the opposite to truth. But lest any one should suppose that any substance or nature is opposite to truth, let him understand that a lie has relation to that which is not, not to that which is. For if that which is be spoken, truth is spoken: but if that which is not be spoken, it is a lie. Therefore says he, You will destroy all that speak a lie; because drawing back from that which is, they turn aside to that which is not. Many lies indeed seem to be for some one's safety or advantage, spoken not in malice, but in kindness: such was that of those midwives in Exodus, Exodus 1:19 who gave a false report to Pharaoh, to the end that the infants of the children of Israel might not be slain. But even these are praised not for the fact, but for the disposition shown; since those who only lie in this way, will attain in time to a freedom from all lying. For in those that are perfect, not even these lies are found. For to these it is said, Let there be in your mouth, yea, yea; nay, nay; whatsoever is more, is of evil. Matthew 5:37 Nor is it without reason written in another place, The mouth that lies slays the soul: Wisdom 1:11 lest any should imagine that the perfect and spiritual man ought to lie for this temporal life, in the death of which no soul is slain, neither his own, nor another's. But since it is one thing to lie, another to conceal the truth (if indeed it be one thing to say what is false, another not to say what is true), if haply one does not wish to give a man up even to this visible death, he should be prepared to conceal what is true, not to say what is false; so that he may neither give him up, nor yet lie, lest he slay his own soul for another's body. But if he cannot yet do this, let him at all events admit only lies of such necessity, that he may attain to be freed even from these, if they alone remain, and receive the strength of the Holy Ghost, whereby he may despise all that must be suffered for the truth's sake. In fine, there are two kinds of lies, in which there is no great fault, and yet they are not without fault, either when we are in jest, or when we lie that we may do good. That first kind, in jest, is for this reason not very hurtful, because there is no deception. For he to whom it is said knows that it is said for the sake of the jest. But the second kind is for this reason the more inoffensive, because it carries with it some kindly intention. And to say truth, that which has no duplicity, cannot even be called a lie. As if, for example, a sword be entrusted to any one, and he promises to return it, when he who entrusted it to him shall demand it: if he chance to require his sword when in a fit of madness, it is clear it must not be returned then, lest he kill either himself or others, until soundness of mind be restored to him. Here then is no duplicity, because he, to whom the sword was entrusted, when he promised that he would return it at the other's demand, did not imagine that he could require it when in a fit of madness. But even the Lord concealed the truth, when He said to the disciples, not yet strong enough, I have many things to say unto you, but you cannot bear them now: John 16:12 and the Apostle Paul when he said, I could not speak unto you as unto spiritual, but as unto carnal. 1 Corinthians 3:1 Whence it is clear that it is not blamable, sometimes not to speak what is true. But to say what is false is not found to have been allowed to the perfect.

8. The man of blood, and the crafty man, the Lord will abominate. What he said above, You have hated all that work iniquity, You will destroy all that speak a lie, may well seem to be repeated here: so that one may refer the man of blood to the worker of iniquity, and the crafty man to the lie. For it is craft, when one thing is done, another pretended. He used an apt word too, when he said, will abominate. For the disinherited are usually called abominated. Now this Psalm is, for her who receives the inheritance; and she adds the exulting joy of her hope, in saying, But I, in the multitude of Your mercy, will enter into Your house Psalm 5:7. In the multitude of mercy: perhaps he means in the multitude of perfected and blessed men, of whom that city shall consist, of which the Church is now in travail, and is bearing few by few. Now that many men regenerated and perfected, are rightly called the multitude of God's mercy, who can deny; when it is most truly said, What is man that You are mindful of him, or the son of man that You visit him? I will enter into Your house: as a stone into a building, I suppose, is the meaning. For what else is the house of God than the Temple of God, of which it is said, for the temple of God is holy, 1 Corinthians 3:17 which temple you are? Of which building He is the cornerstone, Ephesians 2:20 whom the Power and Wisdom of God coeternal with the Father assumed.

9. I will worship at Your holy temple, in Your fear. At the temple, we understand as, near the temple. For he does not say, I will worship in Your holy temple; but, I will worship at Your holy temple. It must be understood too to be spoken not of perfection, but of progress toward perfection: so that the words, I will enter into Your house, should signify perfection. But that this may come to a happy issue, I will first, he says, worship at Your holy temple. And perhaps on this account he added, in Your fear; which is a great defense to those that are advancing toward salvation. But when any one shall have arrived there, in him comes to pass that which is written, perfect love casts out fear. 1 John 4:18 For they do not fear Him who is now their friend, to whom it is said, henceforth I will not call you servants, but friends, John 15:15 when they have been brought through to that which was promised.

10. O Lord, lead me forth in Your justice because of mine enemies Psalm 5:8. He has here sufficiently plainly declared that he is on his onward road, that is, in progress toward perfection, not yet in perfection itself, when he desires eagerly that he may be led forth. But, in Your justice, not in that which seems so to men. For to return evil for evil seems justice: but it is not His justice of whom it is said, He makes His sun to rise on the good and on the evil: for even when God punishes sinners, He does not inflict His evil on them, but leaves them to their own evil. Behold, the Psalmist says, he travailed with injustice, he has conceived toil, and brought forth iniquity: he has opened a ditch, and dug it, and has fallen into the pit which he wrought: his pains shall be turned on his own head, and his iniquity shall descend on his own pate. When then God punishes, He punishes as a judge those that transgress the law, not by bringing evil upon them from Himself, but driving them on to that which they have chosen, to fill up the sum of their misery. But man, when he returns evil for evil, does it with an evil will: and on this account is himself first evil, when he would punish evil.

11. Direct in Your sight my way. Nothing is clearer, than that he here sets forth that time, in which he is journeying onward. For this is a way which is traversed not in any regions of the earth, but in the affections of the heart. In Your sight, he says, direct my way: that is, where no man sees; who are not to be trusted in their praise or blame. For they can in no wise judge of another man's conscience, wherein the way toward God is traversed. Hence it is added, for truth is not in their mouth Psalm 5:9. To whose judgment of course then there is no trusting, and therefore must we fly within to conscience, and the sight of God. Their heart is vain. How then can truth be in their mouth, whose heart is deceived by sin, and the punishment of sin? Whence men are called back by that voice, Wherefore do ye love vanity, and seek a lie?

12. Their throat is an open sepulchre. It may be referred to signify gluttony, for the sake of which men very often lie by flattery. And admirably has he said, an open sepulchre: for this gluttony is ever gaping with open mouth, not as sepulchres, which, on the reception of corpses, are closed up. This also may be understood hereby, that with lying and blind flattery men draw to themselves those whom they entice to sin; and as it were devour them, when they turn them to their own way of living. And when this happens to them, since by sin they die, those by whom they are led along, are rightly called open sepulchres: for themselves too are in a manner lifeless, being destitute of the life of truth; and they take in to themselves dead men, whom having slain by lying words and a vain heart, they turn unto themselves. With their own tongues they dealt craftily: that is, with evil tongues. For this seems to be signified, when he says their own. For the evil have evil tongues, that is, they speak evil, when they speak craftily. To whom the Lord says, How can you, being evil, speak good things? Matthew 12:34

13. Judge them, O God: let them fall from their own thoughts Psalm 5:10. It is a prophecy, not a curse. For he does not wish that it should come to pass; but he perceives what will come to pass. For this happens to them, not because he appears to have wished for it, but because they are such as to deserve that it should happen. For so also what he says afterwards, Let all that hope in You rejoice, he says by way of prophecy; since he perceives that they will rejoice. Likewise is it said prophetically, Stir up Your strength, and come: for he saw that He would come. Although the words, Let them fall from their own thoughts, may be taken thus also, that it may rather be believed to be a wish for their good by the Psalmist, while they fall from their evil thoughts, that is, that they may no more think evil. But what follows, drive them out, forbids this interpretation. For it can in no way be taken in a favourable sense, that one is driven out by God. Wherefore it is understood to be said prophetically, and not of ill will; when this is said, which must necessarily happen to such as chose to persevere in those sins, which have been mentioned. Let them, therefore, fall from their own thoughts, is, let them fall by their self-accusing thoughts, their own conscience also bearing witness, as the Apostle says, and their thoughts accusing or excusing, in the revelation of the just judgment of God. Romans 2:15-16

14. According to the multitude of their ungodlinesses drive them out: that is, drive them out far away. For this is according to the multitude of their ungodlinesses, that they should be driven out far away. The ungodly then are driven out from that inheritance, which is possessed by knowing and seeing God: as diseased eyes are driven out from the shining of the light, when what is gladness to others is pain to them. Therefore these shall not stand in the morning, and see. And that expression is as great a punishment, as that which is said, But for me it is good to cleave to the Lord, is a great reward. To this punishment is opposed, Enter into the joy of Your Lord; Matthew 25:21 for similar to this expulsion is, Cast him into outer darkness. Matthew 25:30

15. Since they have embittered You, O Lord: I am, says He, the Bread which came down from heaven; John 6:51 again, Labour for the meat which wasts not; John 6:27 again, Taste and see that the Lord is sweet. But to sinners the bread of truth is bitter. Whence they hate the mouth of him that speaks the truth. These then have embittered God, who by sin have fallen into such a state of sickliness, that the food of truth, in which healthy souls delight, as if it were bitter as gall, they cannot bear.

16. And let all rejoice that hope in You; those of course to whose taste the Lord is sweet. They will exult for evermore, and You will dwell in them Psalm 5:11. This will be the exultation for evermore, when the just become the Temple of God, and He, their Indweller, will be their joy. And all that love Your name shall glory in You: as when what they love is present for them to enjoy. And well is it said, in You, as if in possession of the inheritance, of which the title of the Psalm speaks: when they too are His inheritance, which is intimated by, You will dwell in them. From which good they are kept back, whom God, according to the multitude of their ungodlinesses, drives out.

17. For You will bless the just man Psalm 5:12. This is blessing, to glory in God, and to be inhabited by God. Such sanctification is given to the just. But that they may be justified, a calling goes before: which is not of merit, but of the grace of God. For all have sinned, and want the glory of God. Romans 3:23 For whom He called, them He also justified; and whom He justified, them He also glorified. Romans 8:30 Since then calling is not of our merit, but of the goodness and mercy of God, he went on to say, O Lord, as with the shield of Your good will You have crowned us. For God's good will goes before our good will, to call sinners to repentance. And these are the arms whereby the enemy is overcome, against whom it is said, Who will bring accusation against God's elect? Again, if God be for us, who can be against us? Who spared not His Only Son, but delivered Him up for us all. For if, when we were enemies, Christ died for us; much more being reconciled shall we be saved from wrath through Him. Romans 5:10 This is that unconquerable shield, whereby the enemy is driven back, when he suggests despair of our salvation through the multitude of tribulations and temptations.

18. The whole contents of the Psalm, then, are a prayer that she may be heard, from the words, hear my words, O Lord, unto, my King, and my God. Then follows a view of those things which hinder the sight of God, that is, a knowledge that she is heard, from the words, because I shall pray unto You, O Lord, in the morning You will hear my voice, unto, the man of blood and the crafty man the Lord will abominate. Thirdly, she hopes that she, who is to be the house of God, even now begins to draw near to Him in fear, before that perfection which casts out fear, from the words, but I in the multitude of Your mercy, unto, I will worship at Your holy temple in Your fear. Fourthly, as she is progressing and advancing among those very things which she feels to hinder her, she prays that she may be assisted within, where no man sees, lest she be turned aside by evil tongues, for the words, O Lord, lead me forth in Your justice because of my enemies, unto, with their tongues they dealt craftily. Fifthly, is a prophecy of what punishment awaits the ungodly, when the just man shall scarcely be saved; and of what reward the just shall obtain, who, when they were called, came, and bore all things manfully, till they were brought to the end, from the words, judge them, O God, unto the end of the Psalm.
"So let us be confident, let us not be unprepared, let us not be outflanked, let us be wise, vigilant, fighting against those who are trying to tear the faith out of our souls and morality out of our hearts, so that we may remain Catholics, remain united to the Blessed Virgin Mary, remain united to the Roman Catholic Church, remain faithful children of the Church."- Abp. Lefebvre
Exposition on Psalm 6
Taken from here.

To the end, in the hymns of the eighth, a psalm to David.

1. Of the eighth, seems here obscure. For the rest of this title is more clear. Now it has seemed to some to intimate the day of judgment, that is, the time of the coming of our Lord, when He will come to judge the quick and dead. Which coming, it is believed, is to be, after reckoning the years from Adam, seven thousand years: so as that seven thousand years should pass as seven days, and afterwards that time arrive as it were the eighth day. But since it has been said by the Lord, It is not yours to know the times, which the Father has put in His own power: Acts 1:7 and, But of the day and that hour knows no man, no, neither angel, nor Power, neither the Son, but the Father alone: Mark 13:32 and again, that which is written, that the day of the Lord comes as a thief, 1 Thessalonians 5:2 shows clearly enough that no man should arrogate to himself the knowledge of that time, by any computation of years. For if that day is to come after seven thousand years, every man could learn its advent by reckoning the years. What comes then of the Son's even not knowing this? Which of course is said with this meaning, that men do not learn this by the Son, not that He by Himself does not know it: according to that form of speech, the Lord your God tries you that He may know; Deuteronomy 13:3 that is, that He may make you know: and, arise, O Lord; that is, make us arise. When therefore the Son is thus said not to know this day; not because He knows it not, but because He causes those to know it not, for whom it is not expedient to know it, that is, He does not show it to them; what does that strange presumption mean, which, by a reckoning up of years, expects the day of the Lord as most certain after seven thousand years?

2. Be we then willingly ignorant of that which the Lord would not have us know: and let us inquire what this title, of the eighth, means. The day of judgment may indeed, even without any rash computation of years, be understood by the eighth, for that immediately after the end of this world, life eternal being attained, the souls of the righteous will not then be subject unto times: and, since all times have their revolution in a repetition of those seven days, that perhaps is called the eighth day, which will not have this variety. There is another reason, which may be here not unreasonably accepted, why the judgment should be called the eighth, because it will take place after two generations, one relating to the body, the other to the soul. For from Adam unto Moses the human race lived of the body, that is, according to the flesh: which is called the outward and the old man, and to which the Old Testament was given, that it might prefigure the spiritual things to come by operations, albeit religious, yet carnal. Through this entire season, when men lived according to the body, death reigned, as the Apostle says, even over those that had not sinned. Now it reigned after the similitude of Adam's transgression, Romans 5:14 as the same Apostle says; for it must be taken of the period up to Moses, up to which time the works of the law, that is, those sacraments of carnal observance, held even those bound, for the sake of a certain mystery, who were subject to the One God. But from the coming of the Lord, from whom there was a transition from the circumcision of the flesh to the circumcision of the heart, the call was made, that man should live according to the soul, that is, according to the inner man, who is also called the new man Colossians 3:10 by reason of the new birth and the renewing of spiritual conversation. Now it is plain that the number four has relation to the body, from the four well known elements of which it consists, and the four qualities of dry, humid, warm, cold. Hence too it is administered by four seasons, spring, summer, autumn, winter. All this is very well known. For of the number four relating to the body we have treated elsewhere somewhat subtly, but obscurely: which must be avoided in this discourse, which we would have accommodated to the unlearned. But that the number three has relation to the mind may be understood from this, that we are commanded to love God after a threefold manner, with the whole heart, with the whole soul, with the whole mind: of each of which severally we must treat, not in the Psalms, but in the Gospels: for the present, for proof of the relation of the number three to the mind, I think what has been said enough. Those numbers then of the body which have relation to the old man and the Old Testament, being past and gone, the numbers too of the soul, which have relation to the new man and the New Testament, being past and gone, a septenary so to say being passed; because everything is done in time, four having been distributed to the body, three to the mind; the eighth will come, the day of judgment: which assigning to deserts their due, will transfer at once the saint, not to temporal works, but to eternal life; but will condemn the ungodly to eternal punishment.

3. In fear of which condemnation the Church prays in this Psalm, and says, Reprove me not, O Lord, in Your anger Psalm 6:1. The Apostle too mentions the anger of the judgment; You treasure up unto yourself, he says, anger against the day of the anger of the just judgment of God. Romans 2:5 In which he would not be reproved, whosoever longs to be healed in this life. Nor in Your rage chasten me. Chasten, seems rather too mild a word; for it avails toward amendment. For for him who is reproved, that is, accused, it is to be feared lest his end be condemnation. But since rage seems to be more than anger, it may be a difficulty, why that which is milder, namely, chastening, is joined to that which is more severe, namely, rage. But I suppose that one and the same thing is signified by the two words. For in the Greek θυμὸς, which is in the first verse, means the same as ὀ ργὴ, which is in the second verse. But when the Latins themselves too wished to use two distinct words, they looked out for what was akin to anger, and rage was used. Hence copies vary. For in some anger is found first, and then rage: in others, for rage, indignation or choler is used. But whatever the reading, it is an emotion of the soul urging to the infliction of punishment. Yet this emotion must not be attributed to God, as if to a soul, of whom it is said, but Thou, O Lord of power, judgest with tranquillity. Wisdom 12:18 Now that which is tranquil, is not disturbed. Disturbance then does not attach to God as judge: but what is done by His ministers, in that it is done by His laws, is called His anger. In which anger, the soul, which now prays, would not only not be reproved, but not even chastened, that is, amended or instructed. For in the Greek it is, παιδεύσῃς, that is, instruct. Now in the day of judgment all are reproved that hold not the foundation, which is Christ. But they are amended, that is, purged, who upon this foundation build wood, hay, stubble. For they shall suffer loss, but shall be saved, as by fire. What then does he pray, who would not be either reproved or amended in the anger of the Lord? What else but that he may be healed? For where sound health is, neither death is to be dreaded, nor the physician's hand with caustics or the knife.

4. He proceeds accordingly to say, Pity me, O Lord, for I am weak: heal me, O Lord, for my bones are troubled Psalm 6:2, that is, the support of my soul, or strength: for this is the meaning of bones. The soul therefore says, that her strength is troubled, when she speaks of bones. For it is not to be supposed, that the soul has bones, such as we see in the body. Wherefore, what follows tends to explain it, and my soul is troubled exceedingly Psalm 6:3, lest because he mentioned bones, they should be understood as of the body. And You, O Lord, how long? Who does not see represented here a soul struggling with her diseases; but long kept back by the physician, that she may be convinced what evils she has plunged herself into through sin? For what is easily healed, is not much avoided: but from the difficulty of the healing, there will be the more careful keeping of recovered health. God then, to whom it is said, And You, O Lord, how long? must not be deemed as if cruel: but as a kind convincer of the soul, what evil she has procured for herself. For this soul does not yet pray so perfectly, as that it can be said to her, Whilst you are yet speaking I will say, Behold, here I am. Isaiah 65:24 That she may at the same time also come to know, if they who do turn meet with so great difficulty, how great punishment is prepared for the ungodly, who will not turn to God: as it is written in another place, If the righteous scarcely be saved, where shall the sinner and ungodly appear? 1 Peter 4:18

5. Turn, O Lord, and deliver my soul Psalm 6:4. Turning herself she prays that God too would turn to her: as it is said, Turn ye unto Me, and I will turn unto you, says the Lord. Zechariah 1:3 Or is it to be understood according to that way of speaking, Turn, O Lord, that is make me turn, since the soul in this her turning feels difficulty and toil? For our perfected turning finds God ready, as says the Prophet, We shall find Him ready as the dawn. Since it was not His absence who is everywhere present, but our turning away that made us lose Him; He was in this world, it is said, and the world was made by Him, and the world knew Him not. John 1:10 If, then, He was in this world, and the world knew Him not, our impurity does not endure the sight of Him. But while we are turning ourselves, that is, by changing our old life are fashioning our spirit; we feel it hard and toilsome to be wrested back from the darkness of earthly lusts, to the serene and quiet and tranquillity of the divine light. And in such difficulty we say, Turn, O Lord, that is, help us, that that turning may be perfected in us, which finds You ready, and offering Yourself for the fruition of them that love You. And hence after he said, Turn, O Lord, he added, and deliver my soul: cleaving as it were to the entanglements of this world, and suffering, in the very act of turning, from the thorns, as it were, of rending and tearing desires. Make me whole, he says, for Your pity's sake. He knows that it is not of his own merits that he is healed: for to him sinning, and transgressing a given command, was just condemnation due. Heal me therefore, he says, not for my merit's sake, but for Your pity's sake.

6. For in death there is no one that is mindful of You Psalm 6:5. He knows too that now is the time for turning unto God: for when this life shall have passed away, there remains but a retribution of our deserts. But in hell who shall confess to You? Luke xvi That rich man, of whom the Lord speaks, who saw Lazarus in rest, but bewailed himself in torments, confessed in hell, yea so as to wish even to have his brethren warned, that they might keep themselves from sin, because of the punishment which is not believed to be in hell. Although therefore to no purpose, yet he confessed that those torments had deservedly lighted upon him; since he even wished his brethren to be instructed, lest they should fall into the same. What then is, But in hell who will confess to You? Is hell to be understood as that place, whither the ungodly will be cast down after the judgment, when by reason of that deeper darkness they will no more see any light of God, to whom they may confess anything? For as yet that rich man by raising his eyes, although a vast gulf lay between, could still see Lazarus established in rest: by comparing himself with whom, he was driven to a confession of his own deserts. It may be understood also, as if the Psalmist calls sin, that is committed in contempt of God's law, death: so as that we should give the name of death to the sting of death, because it procures death. For the sting of death is sin. 1 Corinthians 15:56 In which death this is to be unmindful of God, to despise His law and commandments: so that by hell the Psalmist would mean that blindness of soul which overtakes and enwraps the sinner, that is, the dying. As they did not think good, the Apostle says, to retain God in their knowledge, God gave them over to a reprobate mind. Romans 1:28 From this death, and this hell, the soul earnestly prays that she may be kept safe, while she strives to turn to God, and feels her difficulties.

7. Wherefore he goes on to say, I have laboured in my groaning. And as if this availed but little, he adds, I will wash each night my couch Psalm 6:6. That is here called a couch, where the sick and weak soul rests, that is, in bodily gratification and in every worldly pleasure. Which pleasure, whoever endeavours to withdraw himself from it, washes with tears. For he sees that he already condemns carnal lusts; and yet his weakness is held by the pleasure, and willingly lies down therein, from whence none but the soul that is made whole can rise. As for what he says, each night, he would perhaps have it taken thus: that he who, ready in spirit, perceives some light of truth, and yet, through weakness of the flesh, rests sometime in the pleasure of this world, is compelled to suffer as it were days and nights in an alternation of feeling: as when he says, With the mind I serve the law of God, he feels as it were day; again when he says, but with the flesh the law of sin, Romans 7:25 he declines into night: until all night passes away, and that one day comes, of which it is said, In the morning I will stand by You, and will see. For then he will stand, but now he lies down, when he is on his couch; which he will wash each night, that with so great abundance of tears he may obtain the most assured remedy from the mercy of God. I will drench my bed with tears. It is a repetition. For when he says, with tears, he shows with what meaning he said above, I will wash. For we take bed here to be the same as couch above. Although, I will drench, is something more than, I will wash: since anything may be washed superficially, but drenching penetrates to the more inward parts; which here signifies weeping to the very bottom of the heart. Now the variety of tenses which he uses; the past, when he said, I have laboured in my groaning; and the future, when he said, I will wash each night my couch; the future again, I will drench my bed with tears; this shows what every man ought to say to himself, when he labours in groaning to no purpose. As if he should say, It has not profited when I have done this, therefore I will do the other.

8. My eye is disordered by anger Psalm 6:7: is it by his own, or God's anger, in which he makes petition that he might not be reproved, or chastened? But if anger in that place intimate the day of judgment, how can it be understood now? Is it a beginning of it, that men here suffer pains and torments, and above all the loss of the understanding of the truth; as I have already quoted that which is said, God gave them over to a reprobate mind? Romans 1:28 For such is the blindness of the mind. Whosoever is given over thereunto, is shut out from the interior light of God: but not wholly as yet, while he is in this life. For there is outer darkness, Matthew 25:30 which is understood to belong rather to the day of judgment; that he should rather be wholly without God, whosoever while there is time refuses correction. Now to be wholly without God, what else is it, but to be in extreme blindness? If indeed God dwell in inaccessible light, 1 Timothy 6:16 whereinto they enter, to whom it is said, Enter into the joy of your Lord. It is then the beginning of this anger, which in this life every sinner suffers. In fear therefore of the day of judgment, he is in trial and grief; lest he be brought to that, the disastrous commencement of which he experiences now. And therefore he did not say, my eye is extinguished, but, my eye is disordered by anger. But if he mean that his eye is disordered by his own anger, there is no wonder either in this. For hence perhaps it is said, Let not the sun go down upon your wrath; Ephesians 4:26 because the mind, which, from her own disorder, is not permitted to see God, supposes that the inner sun, that is, the wisdom of God, suffers as it were a setting in her.

9. I have grown old in all mine enemies. He had only spoken of anger (if it were yet of his own anger that he spoke): but thinking on his other vices, he found that he was entrenched by them all. Which vices, as they belong to the old life and the old man, which we must put off, that we may put on the new man, Colossians 3:9-10 it is well said, I have grown old. But in all mine enemies, he means, either amidst these vices, or amidst men who will not be converted to God. For these, even if they know them not, even if they bear with them, even if they use the same tables and houses and cities, with no strife arising between them, and in frequent converse together with seeming concord: notwithstanding, by the contrariety of their aims, they are enemies to those who turn unto God. For seeing that the one love and desire this world, the others wish to be freed from this world, who sees not that the first are enemies to the last? For if they can, they draw the others into punishment with them. And it is a great grace, to be conversant daily with their words, and not to depart from the way of God's commandments. For often the mind which is striving to go on to God-ward, being rudely handled in the very road, is alarmed; and generally fulfils not its good intent, lest it should offend those with whom it lives, who love and follow after other perishable and transient goods. From such every one that is whole is separated, not in space, but in soul. For the body is contained in space, but the soul's space is her affection.

10. Wherefore after the labour, and groaning, and very frequent showers of tears, since that cannot be ineffectual, which is asked so earnestly of Him, who is the Fountain of all mercies, and it is most truly said, the Lord is near unto them that are of a broken heart: after difficulties so great, the pious soul, by which we may also understand the Church, intimating that she has been heard, see what she adds: Depart from me, all you that work iniquity; for the Lord has heard the voice of my weeping Psalm 6:8. It is either spoken prophetically, since they will depart, that is, the ungodly will be separated from the righteous, when the day of judgment arrives, or, for this time present. For although both are equally found in the same assemblies, yet on the open floor the wheat is already separated from the chaff, though it be hid among the chaff. They can therefore be associated together, but cannot be carried away by the wind together.

11. For the Lord has heard the voice of my weeping; The Lord has heard my supplication; the Lord has received my prayer Psalm 6:9. The frequent repetition of the same sentiments shows not, so to say, the necessities of the narrator, but the warm feeling of his joy. For they that rejoice are wont so to speak, as that it is not enough for them to declare once for all the object of their joy. This is the fruit of that groaning in which there is labour, and those tears with which the couch is washed, and bed drenched: for, he that sows in tears, shall reap in joy: and, blessed are they that mourn, for they shall be comforted.

12. Let all mine enemies be ashamed and vexed Psalm 6:10. He said above, depart from me all you: which can take place, as it has been explained, even in this life: but as to what he says, let them be ashamed and vexed, I do not see how it can happen, save on that day when the rewards of the righteous and the punishments of the sinners shall be made manifest. For at present so far are the ungodly from being ashamed, that they do not cease to insult us. And for the most part their mockings are of such avail, that they make the weak to be ashamed of the name of Christ. Hence it is said, Whosoever shall be ashamed of Me before men, of him will I be ashamed before My Father. But now whosoever would fulfil those sublime commands, to disperse, to give to the poor, that his righteousness may endure for ever; and selling all his earthly goods, and spending them on the needy, would follow Christ, saying, We brought nothing into this world, and truly we can carry nothing out; having food and raiment, let us be therewith content; 1 Timothy 6:7-8 incurs the profane raillery of those men, and by those who will not be made whole, is called mad; and often to avoid being so called by desperate men, he fears to do, and puts off that, which the most faithful and powerful of all physicians has ordered. It is not then at present that these can be ashamed, by whom we have to wish that we be not made ashamed, and so be either called back from our proposed journey, or hindered, or delayed. But the time will come when they shall be ashamed, saying as it is written, These are they whom we had sometimes in derision, and a parable of reproach: we fools counted their life madness, and their end to be without honour: how are they numbered among the children of God, and their lot is among the saints? Therefore have we erred from the way of truth, and the light of righteousness has not shined into us, nor the sun risen upon us: we have been filled with the way of wickedness and destruction, and have walked through rugged deserts, but the way of the Lord we have not known. What has pride profited us, or what has the vaunting of riches brought us? All those things are passed away like a shadow. Wisdom 5:3-9

13. But as to what he says, Let them be turned and confounded, who would not judge it to be a most righteous punishment, that they should have a turning unto confusion, who would not have one unto salvation? After this he added, exceeding quickly. For when the day of judgment shall have begun to be no longer looked for, when they shall have said, Peace, then shall sudden destruction come upon them. 1 Thessalonians 5:3 Now whenever it come, that comes very quickly, of whose coming we give up all expectation; and nothing makes the length of this life be felt but the hope of living. For nothing seems more quick, than all that has already passed in it. When then the day of judgment shall come, then will sinners feel how that all the life which passes away is not long. Nor will that any way possibly seem to them to have come tardily, which shall have come without their desiring, or rather without their believing. Although it can too be taken in this place thus, that inasmuch as God has heard, so to say, her groans, and her long and frequent tears, she may be understood to be freed from her sins, and to have tamed every disordered impulse of carnal affection: as she says, Depart from me, all you that work iniquity, for the Lord has heard the voice of my weeping: and when she has had this happy issue, it is no marvel if she be already so perfect as to pray for her enemies. The words then, Let all mine enemies be ashamed, and vexed, may have this meaning; that they should repent of their sins, which cannot be effected without confusion and vexation. There is then nothing to hinder us from taking what follows too in this sense, let them be turned and ashamed, that is, let them be turned to God, and be ashamed that they sometime gloried in the former darkness of their sins; as the Apostle says, For what glory had ye sometime in those things of which you are now ashamed? Romans 6:21 But as to what he added, exceeding quickly, it must be referred either to the warm affection of her wish, or to the power of Christ; who converts to the faith of the Gospel in such quick time the nations, which in their idols' cause did persecute the Church.
"So let us be confident, let us not be unprepared, let us not be outflanked, let us be wise, vigilant, fighting against those who are trying to tear the faith out of our souls and morality out of our hearts, so that we may remain Catholics, remain united to the Blessed Virgin Mary, remain united to the Roman Catholic Church, remain faithful children of the Church."- Abp. Lefebvre
Exposition on Psalm 7
Taken from here.

A psalm to David himself, which he sung to the Lord, for the words of Chusi, son of Jemini.

1. Now the story which gave occasion to this prophecy may be easily recognised in the second book of Kings. 2 Samuel 15:34-37 For there Chusi, the friend of king David, went over to the side of Abessalon, his son, who was carrying on war against his father, for the purpose of discovering and reporting the designs which he was taking against his father, at the instigation of Achitophel, who had revolted from David's friendship, and was instructing by his counsel, to the best of his power, the son against the father. But since it is not the story itself which is to be the subject of consideration in this Psalm, from which the prophet has taken a veil of mysteries, if we have passed over to Christ, let the veil be taken away. 2 Corinthians 3:16 And first let us inquire into the signification of the very names, what it means. For there have not been wanting interpreters, who investigating these same words, not carnally according to the letter, but spiritually, declare to us that Chusi should be interpreted silence; and Gemini, right-handed; Achitophel, brother's ruin. Among which interpretations, Judas, that traitor, again meets us, that Abessalon should bear his image, according to that interpretation of it as a father's peace; in that his father was full of thoughts of peace toward him: although he in his guile had war in his heart, as was treated of in the third Psalm. Now as we find in the Gospels that the disciples of our Lord Jesus Christ are called sons, Matthew 9:15 so in the same Gospels we find they are called brethren also. For the Lord on the resurrection says, Go and say to My brethren. John 20:17 And the Apostle calls Him the first begotten among many brethren. The ruin then of that disciple, who betrayed Him, is rightly understood to be a brother's ruin, which we said is the interpretation of Achitophel. Now as to Chusi, from the interpretation of silence, it is rightly understood that our Lord contended against that guile in silence, that is, in that most deep secret, whereby blindness happened in part to Israel, Romans 11:25 when they were persecuting the Lord, that the fullness of the Gentiles might enter in, and so all Israel might be saved. When the Apostle came to this profound secret and deep silence, he exclaimed, as if struck with a kind of awe of its very depth, O the depth of the riches of the wisdom and knowledge of God! How unsearchable are His judgments, and His ways past finding out! For who has known the wind of the Lord, or who has been His counsellor? Romans 11:33-34 Thus that great silence he does not so much discover by explanation, as he sets forth its greatness in admiration. In this silence the Lord, hiding the sacrament of His adorable passion, turns the brother's voluntary ruin, that is, His betrayer's impious wickedness, into the order of His mercy and providence: that what he with perverse mind wrought for one Man's destruction, He might by providential overruling dispose for all men's salvation. The perfect soul then, which is already worthy to know the secret of God, sings a Psalm unto the Lord, she sings for the words of Chusi, because she has attained to know the words of that silence: for among unbelievers and persecutors there is that silence and secret. But among His own, to whom it is said, Now I call you no more servants; for the servant knows not what his lord does; but I have called you friends, for all things that I have heard of My Father I have made known unto you: John 15:15 among His friends, I say, there is not the silence, but the words of the silence, that is, the meaning of that silence set forth and manifested. Which silence, that is, Chusi, is called the son of Gemini, that is, righthanded. For what was done for the Saints was not to be hidden from them. And yet He says, Let not the left hand know what the right hand does. Matthew 6:3 The perfect soul then, to which that secret has been made known, sings in prophecy for the words of Chusi, that is, for the knowledge of that same secret. Which secret God at her right hand, that is, favourable and propitious unto her, has wrought. Wherefore this silence is called the Son of the right hand, which is, Chusi, the son of Gemini.

2. O Lord my God, in You have I hoped: save me from all them that persecute me, and deliver me Psalm 7:1. As one to whom, already perfected, all the war and enmity of vice being overcome, there remains no enemy but the envious devil, he says, Save me from all them that persecute me, and deliver me Psalm 7:2: lest at any time he tear my soul as a lion. The Apostle says, Your adversary the devil, as a roaring lion, walks about, seeking whom he may devour. 1 Peter 5:8 Therefore when the Psalmist said in the plural number, Save me from all them that persecute me: he afterwards introduced the singular, saying, lest at any time he tear my soul as a lion. For he does not say, lest at any time they tear: he knew what enemy and violent adversary of the perfect soul remained. Whilst there be none to redeem, nor to save: that is, lest he tear me, while Thou redeemest not, nor savest. For, if God redeem not, nor save, he tears.

3. And that it might be clear that the already perfect soul, which is to be on her guard against the most insidious snares of the devil only, says this, see what follows. O Lord my God, if I have done this Psalm 7:3. What is it that he calls this? Since he does not mention the sin by name, are we to understand sin generally? If this sense displease us, we may take that to be meant which follows: as if we had asked, what is this that you say, this? He answers, If there be iniquity in my hands. Now then it is clear that it is said of all sin, If I have repaid them that recompense me evil Psalm 7:4. Which none can say with truth, but the perfect. For so the Lord says, Be perfect, as your Father which is in heaven; who makes His sun to rise upon the good and the evil, and rains on the just and the unjust. Matthew 5:43, 45 He then who repays not them that recompense evil, is perfect. When therefore the perfect soul prays for the words of Chusi, the son of Jemini, that is, for the knowledge of that secret and silence, which the Lord, favourable to us and merciful, wrought for our salvation, so as to endure, and with all patience bear, the guiles of this betrayer: as if He should say to this perfect soul, explaining the design of this secret, For you ungodly and a sinner, that your iniquities might be washed away by My blood-shedding, in great silence and great patience I bore with My betrayer; will you not imitate me, that you too may not repay evil for evil? Considering then, and understanding what the Lord has done for him, and by His example going on to perfection, the Psalmist says, If I have repaid them that recompense me evil: that is, if I have not done what You have taught me by Your example: may I therefore fall by mine enemies empty. And he says well, not, If I have repaid them that do me evil; but, who recompense. For who so recompenses, had received somewhat already. Now it is an instance of greater patience, not even to repay him evil, who after receiving benefits returns evil for good, than if without receiving any previous benefit he had had a mind to injure. If therefore he says, I have repaid them that recompense me evil: that is, If I have not imitated You in that silence, that is, in Your patience, which You have wrought for me, may I fall by mine enemies empty. For he is an empty boaster, who, being himself a man, desires to avenge himself on a man; and while he openly seeks to overcome a man, is secretly himself overcome by the devil, rendered empty by vain and proud joy, because he could not, as it were, be conquered. The Psalmist knows then where a greater victory may be obtained, and where the Father which sees in secret will reward. Matthew 6:6 Lest then he repay them that recompense evil, he overcomes his anger rather than another man, being instructed too by those writings, wherein it is written, Better is he that overcomes his anger, than he that takes a city. Proverbs 16:32 If I have repaid them that recompense me evil, may I therefore fall by my enemies empty. He seems to swear by way of execration, which is the heaviest kind of oath, as when one says, If I have done so and so, may I suffer so and so. But swearing in a swearer's mouth is one thing, in a prophet's meaning another. For here he mentions what will really befall men who repay them that recompense evil; not what, as by an oath, he would imprecate on himself or any other.

4. Let the enemy therefore persecute my soul and take it Psalm 7:5. By again naming the enemy in the singular number, he more and more clearly points out him whom he spoke of above as a lion. For he persecutes the soul, and if he has deceived it, will take it. For the limit of men's rage is the destruction of the body; but the soul, after this visible death, they cannot keep in their power: whereas whatever souls the devil shall have taken by his persecutions, he will keep. And let him tread my life upon the earth: that is, by treading let him make my life earth, that is to say, his food. For he is not only called a lion, but a serpent too, to whom it was said, Earth shall you eat. Genesis 3:14 And to the sinner was it said, Earth you are, and into earth shall you go. Genesis 3:19 And let him bring down my glory to the dust. This is that dust which the wind casts forth from the face of the earth, to wit, vain and silly boasting of the proud, puffed up, not of solid weight, as a cloud of dust carried away by the wind. Justly then has he here spoken of the glory, which he would not have brought down to dust. For he would have it solidly established in conscience before God, where there is no boasting. He that glories, says the Apostle, let him glory in the Lord. 1 Corinthians 1:31 This solidity is brought down to the dust if one through pride despising the secrecy of conscience, where God only proves a man, desires to glory before men. Hence comes what the Psalmist elsewhere says, God shall bruise the bones of them that please men. Now he that has well learned or experienced the steps in overcoming vices, knows that this vice of empty glory is either alone, or more than all, to be shunned by the perfect. For that by which the soul first fell, she overcomes the last. For the beginning of all sin is pride: and again, The beginning of man's pride is to depart from God.

5. Arise, O Lord, in Your anger Psalm 7:6. Why yet does he, who we say is perfect, incite God to anger? Must we not see, whether he rather be not perfect, who, when he was being stoned, said, O Lord, lay not this sin to their charge? Acts 7:60 Or does the Psalmist pray thus not against men, but against the devil and his angels, whose possession sinners and the ungodly are? He then does not pray against him in wrath, but in mercy, whosoever prays that that possession may be taken from him by that Lord who justifies the ungodly. Romans 4:5 For when the ungodly is justified, from ungodly he is made just, and from being the possession of the devil he passes into the temple of God. And since it is a punishment that a possession, in which one longs to have rule, should be taken away from him: this punishment, that he should cease to possess those whom he now possesses, the Psalmist calls the anger of God against the devil. Arise, O Lord; in Your anger. Arise (he has used it as appear), in words, that is, human and obscure; as though God sleeps, when He is unrecognised and hidden in His secret workings. Be exalted in the borders of mine enemies. He means by borders the possession itself, in which he wishes that God should be exalted, that is, be honoured and glorified, rather than the devil, while the ungodly are justified and praise God. And arise, O Lord my God, in the commandment that You have given: that is, since You have enjoined humility, appear in humility; and first fulfil what You have enjoined; that men by Your example overcoming pride may not be possessed of the devil, who against Your commandments advised to pride, saying, Eat, and your eyes shall be opened, and you shall be as gods. Genesis 3:5

6. And the congregation of the people shall surround You. This may be understood two ways. For the congregation of the people can be taken, either of them that believe, or of them that persecute, both of which took place in the same humiliation of our Lord: in contempt of which the multitude of them that persecute surrounded Him; concerning which it is said, Why have the heathen raged, and the people meditated vain things? But of them that believe through His humiliation the multitude so surrounded Him, that it could be said with the greatest truth, blindness in part is happened unto Israel, that the fullness of the Gentiles might come in: Romans 11:25 and again, Ask of me, and I will give You the Gentiles for Your inheritance, and the boundaries of the earth for Your possession. And for their sakes return Thou on high: that is, for the sake of this congregation return Thou on high: which He is understood to have done by His resurrection and ascension into heaven. For being thus glorified He gave the Holy Ghost, which before His exaltation could not be given, as it is written in the Gospel, for the Holy Ghost was not yet given, because that Jesus was not yet glorified. John 7:39 Having then returned on high for the sake of the congregation of the people, He sent the Holy Ghost: by whom the preachers of the Gospel being filled, filled the whole world with Churches.

7. It can be taken also in this sense: Arise, O Lord, in Your anger, and be exalted in the borders of mine enemies: that is, arise in Your anger, and let not mine enemies understand You; so that to be exalted, should be this, become high, that You may not be understood; which has reference to the silence spoken of above. For it is of this exaltation thus said in another Psalm, And He ascended upon Cherubim, and flew: and, He made darkness His secret place. In which exaltation, or concealment, when for their sins' desert they shall not understand You, who shall crucify You, the congregation of believers shall surround You. For in His very humiliation He was exalted, that is, was not understood. So that, And arise, O Lord my God, in the commandment that You have given: may have reference to this, that is, when Thou showest Yourself, be high or deep that mine enemies may not understand You. Now sinners are the enemies of the just man, and the ungodly of the godly man. And the congregation of the people shall surround You: that is, by this very circumstance, that those who crucify You understand You not, the Gentiles shall believe in You, and so shall the congregation of the people surround You. But what follows, if this be the true meaning, has in it more pain, that it begins already to be perceived, than joy that it is understood. For it follows, and for their sakes return Thou on high, that is, and for the sake of this congregation of the human race, wherewith the Churches are crowded, return Thou on high, that is, again cease to be understood. What then is, and for their sakes, but that this congregation too will offend You, so that You may most truly foretell and say, Thinkest Thou when the Son of man shall come, He will find faith on the earth? Luke 18:8 Again, of the false prophets, who are understood to be heretics, He says, Because of their iniquity the love of many shall wax cold. Matthew 24:12 Since then even in the Churches, that is, in that congregation of peoples and nations, where the Christian name has most widely spread, there shall be so great abundance of sinners, which is already, in great measure, perceived; is not that famine of the word Amos 8:11 here predicted, which has been threatened by another prophet also? Is it not too for this congregation's sake, who, by their sins, are estranging from themselves that light of truth, that God returns on high, that is, so that faith, pure and cleansed from the corruption of all perverse opinions, is held and received, either not at all, or by the very few of whom it was said, Blessed is he that shall endure to the end, the same shall be saved? Mark 13:13 Not without cause then is it said, and for the sake of this congregation return Thou on high: that is, again withdraw into the depth of Your secrecy, even for the sake of this congregation of the peoples, that has Your name, and does not Your deeds.

8. But whether the former exposition of this place, or this last be the more suitable, without prejudice to any one better, or equal, or as good, it follows very consistently, the Lord judges the people. For whether He returned on high, when, after the resurrection, He ascended into heaven, well does it follow, The Lord judges the people: for that He will come from thence to judge the quick and the dead. Or whether He return on high, when the understanding of the truth leaves sinful Christians, for that of His coming it has been said, Do you think the Son of Man on His coming will find faith on the earth? Luke 18:8 The Lord then judges the people. What Lord, but Jesus Christ? For the Father judges no man, but has committed all judgment unto the Son. John 5:22 Wherefore this soul which prays perfectly, see how she fears not the day of judgment, and with a truly secure longing says in her prayer, Your kingdom come: judge me, she says, O Lord, according to my righteousness. In the former Psalm a weak one was entreating, imploring rather the mercy of God, than mentioning any desert of his own: since the Son of God came to call sinners to repentance. Matthew 9:13 Therefore he had there said, Save me, O Lord, for Your mercy's sake; that is, not for my desert's sake. But now, since being called he has held and kept the commandments which he received, he is bold to say, Judge me, O Lord, according to my righteousness, and according to my harmlessness, that is upon me. This is true harmlessness, which harms not even an enemy. Accordingly, well does he require to be judged according to his harmlessness, who could say with truth, If I have repaid them that recompense me evil. As for what he added, that is upon me, it can refer not only to harmlessness, but can be understood also with reference to righteousness; that the sense should be this, Judge me, O Lord, according to my righteousness, and according to my harmlessness, which righteousness and harmlessness is upon me. By which addition he shows that this very thing, that the soul is righteous and harmless, she has not by herself, but by God who gives brightness and light. For of this he says in another Psalm, You, O Lord, will light my candle. And of John it is said, that he was not the light, but bore witness of the light. John 1:8 He was a burning and shining candle. John 5:35 That light then, whence souls, as candles, are kindled, shines forth not with borrowed, but with original, brightness, which light is truth itself. It is then so said, According to my righteousness, and according to my harmlessness, that is upon me, as if a burning and shining candle should say, Judge me according to the flame which is upon me, that is, not that wherewith I am myself, but that whereby I shine enkindled of you.

9. But let the wickedness of sinners be consummated Psalm 7:9. He says, be consummated, be completed, according to that in the Apocalypse, Let the righteous become more righteous, and let the filthy be filthy still. Revelation 22:11 For the wickedness of those men appears consummate, who crucified the Son of God; but greater is theirs who will not live uprightly, and hate the precepts of truth, for whom the Son of God was crucified. Let the wickedness of sinners, then he says, be consummated, that is, arrive at the height of wickedness, that just judgment may be able to come at once. But since it is not only said, Let the filthy be filthy still; but it is said also, Let the righteous become more righteous; he joins on the words, And You shall direct the righteous, O God, who searches the hearts and reins. How then can the righteous be directed but in secret? When even by means of those things which, in the commencement of the Christian ages, when as yet the saints were oppressed by the persecution of the men of this world, appeared marvellous to men, now that the Christian name has begun to be in such high dignity, hypocrisy, that is pretence, has increased; of those, I mean, who by the Christian profession had rather please men than God. How then is the righteous man directed in so great confusion of pretence, save while God searches the hearts and reins; seeing all men's thoughts, which are meant by the word heart; and their delights, which are understood by the word reins? For the delight in things temporal and earthly is rightly ascribed to the reins; for that it is both the lower part of man, and that region where the pleasure of carnal generation dwells, through which man's nature is transferred into this life of care, and deceiving joy, by the succession of the race. God then, searching our heart, and perceiving that it is there where our treasure is, that is, in heaven; searching also the reins, and perceiving that we do not assent to flesh and blood, but delight ourselves in the Lord, directs the righteous man in his inward conscience before Him, where no man sees, but He alone who perceives what each man thinks, and what delights each. For delight is the end of care; because to this end does each man strive by care and thought, that he may attain to his delight. He therefore sees our cares, who searches the heart. He sees too the ends of cares, that is delights, who narrowly searches the reins; that when He shall find that our cares incline neither to the lust of the flesh, nor to the lust of the eyes, nor to the pride of life, 1 John 2:16 all which pass away as a shadow, but that they are raised upward to the joys of things eternal, which are spoilt by no change, He may direct the righteous, even He, the God who searches the hearts and reins. For our works, which we do in deeds and words, may be known unto men; but with what mind they are done, and to what end we would attain by means of them, He alone knows, the God who searches the hearts and reins.

10. My righteous help is from the Lord, who makes whole the upright in heart Psalm 7:10. The offices of medicine are twofold, on the curing infirmity, the other the preserving health. According to the first it was said in the preceding Psalm, Have mercy on me, O Lord, for I am weak; according to the second it is said in this Psalm, If there be iniquity in my hands, if I have repaid them that recompense me evil, may I therefore fall by my enemies empty. For there the weak prays that he may be delivered, here one already whole that he may not change for the worse. According to the one it is there said, Make me whole for Your mercy's sake; according to this other it is here said, Judge me, O Lord, according to my righteousness. For there he asks for a remedy to escape from disease; but here for protection from falling into disease. According to the former it is said, Make me whole, O Lord, according to Your mercy: according to the latter it is said, My righteous help is from the Lord, who makes whole the upright in heart. Both the one and the other makes men whole; but the former removes them from sickness into health, the latter preserves them in this health. Therefore there the help is merciful, because the sinner has no desert, who as yet longs to be justified, believing on Him who justifies the ungodly; Romans 4:5 but here the help is righteous, because it is given to one already righteous. Let the sinner then who said, I am weak, say in the first place, Make me whole, O Lord, for Your mercy's sake; and here let the righteous man, who said, If I have repaid them that recompense me evil, say, My righteous help is from the Lord, who makes whole the upright in heart. For if he sets forth the medicine, by which we may be healed when weak, how much more that by which we may be kept in health. For if while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us, how much more being now justified shall we be kept whole from wrath through Him. Romans 5:8-9

11. My righteous help is from the Lord, who makes whole the upright in heart. God, who searches the hearts and reins, directs the righteous; but with righteous help makes He whole the upright in heart. He does not as He searches the hearts and reins, so make whole the upright in heart and reins; for the thoughts are both bad in a depraved heart, and good in an upright heart; but delights which are not good belong to the reins, for they are more low and earthly; but those that are good not to the reins, but to the heart itself. Wherefore men cannot be so called upright in reins, as they are called upright in heart, since where the thought is, there at once the delight is too; which cannot be, unless when things divine and eternal are thought of. You have given, he says, joy in my heart, when he had said, The light of Your countenance has been stamped on us, O Lord. For although the phantoms of things temporal, which the mind falsely pictures to itself, when tossed by vain and mortal hope, to vain imagination oftentimes bring a delirious and maddened joy; yet this delight must be attributed not to the heart, but to the reins; for all these imaginations have been drawn from lower, that is, earthly and carnal things. Hence it comes, that God, who searches the hearts and reins, and perceives in the heart upright thoughts, in the reins no delights, affords righteous help to the upright in heart, where heavenly delights are coupled with clean thoughts. And therefore when in another Psalm he had said, Moreover even to-night my reins have chided me; he went on to say as touching help, I foresaw the Lord always in my sight, for He is on my right hand, that I should not be moved. Where he shows that he suffered suggestions only from the reins, not delights as well; for he had suffered these, then he would of course be moved. But he said, The Lord is on my right hand, that I should not be moved; and then he adds, Wherefore was my heart delighted; that the reins should have been able to chide, not delight him. The delight accordingly was produced not in the reins, but there, where against the chiding of the reins God was foreseen to be on the right hand, that is, in the heart.

12. God the righteous judge, strong (in endurance) and long-suffering Psalm 7:11. What God is judge, but the Lord, who judges the people? He is righteous; who shall render to every man according to his works. Matthew 16:27 He is strong (in endurance); who, being most powerful, for our salvation bore even with ungodly persecutors. He is long-suffering; who did not immediately, after His resurrection, hurry away to punishment, even those that persecuted Him, but bore with them, that they might at length turn from that ungodliness to salvation: and still He bears with them, reserving the last penalty for the last judgment, and up to this present time inviting sinners to repentance. Not bringing in anger every day. Perhaps bringing in anger is a more significant expression than being angry (and so we find it in the Greek copies); that the anger, whereby He punishes, should not be in Him, but in the minds of those ministers who obey the commandments of truth through whom orders are given even to the lower ministries, who are called angels of wrath, to punish sin: whom even now the punishment of men delights not for justice' sake, in which they have no pleasure, but for malice' sake. God then does not bring in anger every day, that is, He does not collect His ministers for vengeance every day. For now the patience of God invites to repentance: but in the last time, when men through their hardness and impenitent heart shall have treasured up for themselves anger in the day of anger, and revelation of the righteous judgment of God, Romans 2:5 then He will brandish His sword.

13. Unless ye be converted, He says, He will brandish His sword Psalm 7:12. The Lord Man Himself may be taken to be God's double-edged sword, that is, His spear, which at His first coming He will not brandish, but hides as it were in the sheath of humiliation: but He will brandish it, when at the second coming to judge the quick and dead, in the manifest splendour of His glory, He shall flash light on His righteous ones, and terror on the ungodly. For in other copies, instead of, He shall brandish His sword, it has been written, He shall make bright His spear: by which word I think the last coming of the Lord's glory most appropriately signified: seeing that is understood of His person, which another Psalm has, Deliver, O Lord, my soul from the ungodly, Your spear from the enemies of Your hand. He has bent His bow, and made it ready. The tenses of the words must not be altogether overlooked, how he has spoken of the sword in the future, He will brandish; of the bow in the past, He has bent: and these words of the past tense follow after.

14. And in it He has prepared the instruments of death: He has wrought His arrows for the burning Psalm 7:13. That bow then I would readily take to be the Holy Scripture, in which by the strength of the New Testament, as by a sort of string, the hardness of the Old has been bent and subdued. From thence the Apostles are sent forth like arrows, or divine preachings are shot. Which arrows He has wrought for the burning, arrows, that is, whereby being stricken they might be inflamed with heavenly love. For by what other arrows was she stricken, who says, Bring me into the house of wine, place me among perfumes, crowd me among honey, for I have been wounded with love? By what other arrows is he kindled, who, desirous of returning to God, and coming back from wandering, asks for help against crafty tongues, and to whom it is said, What shall be given you, or what added to you against the crafty tongue? Sharp arrows of the mighty, with devastating coals: that is, coals, whereby, when you are stricken and set on fire, you may burn with so great love of the kingdom of heaven, as to despise the tongues of all that resist you, and would recall you from your purpose, and to deride their persecutions, saying, Who shall separate me from the love of Christ? Shall tribulation, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or sword? For I am persuaded, he says, that neither death, nor life, nor angel, nor principality, nor things present, not things to come, nor power, nor height, nor depth, nor other creature, shall be able to separate me from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord. Thus for the burning has He wrought His arrows. For in the Greek copies it is found thus, He has wrought His arrows for the burning. But most of the Latin copies have burning arrows. But whether the arrows themselves burn, or make others burn, which of course they cannot do unless they burn themselves, the sense is complete.

15. But since he has said that the Lord has prepared not arrows only, but instruments of death too, in the bow, it may be asked, what are instruments of death? Are they, per-adventure, heretics? For they too, out of the same bow, that is, out of the same Scriptures, light upon souls not to be inflamed with love but destroyed with poison: which does not happen but after their deserts: wherefore even this dispensation is to be assigned to the Divine Providence, not that it makes men sinners, but that it orders them after they have sinned. For through sin reaching them with an ill purpose, they are forced to understand them ill, that this should be itself the punishment of sin: by whose death, nevertheless, the sons of the Catholic Church are, as it were by certain thorns, so to say, aroused from slumber, and make progress toward the understanding of the holy Scriptures. For there must be also heresies, that they which are approved, he says, may be made manifest among you: 1 Corinthians 11:19 that is, among men, seeing they are manifest to God. Or has He haply ordained the same arrows to be at once instruments of death for the destruction of unbelievers, and wrought them burning, or for the burning, for the exercising of the faithful? For that is not false that the Apostle says, To the one we are the savour of life unto life, to the other the savour of death unto death; and who is sufficient for these things? 2 Corinthians 2:16 It is no wonder then if the same Apostles be both instruments of death in those from whom they suffered persecution, and fiery arrows to inflame the hearts of believers.

16. Now after this dispensation righteous judgment will come: of which the Psalmist so speaks, as that we may understand that each man's punishment is wrought out of his own sin, and his iniquity turned into vengeance: that we may not suppose that that tranquillity and ineffable light of God brings forth from Itself the means of punishing sin; but that it so orders sins, that what have been delights to man in sinning, should be instruments to the Lord avenging. Behold, he says, he has travailed with injustice. Now what had he conceived, that he should travail with injustice? He has conceived, he says, toil. Hence then comes that, In toil shall you eat your bread. Genesis 3:17 Hence too that, Come unto Me all you that toil and are heavy laden; for My yoke is easy, and My burden light. For toil will never cease, except one love that which cannot be taken away against his will. For when those things are loved which we can lose against our will, we must needs toil for them most miserably; and to obtain them, amid the straitnesses of earthly cares, while each desires to snatch them for himself, and to be beforehand with another, or to wrest it from him, must scheme injustice. Duly then, and quite in order, has he travailed with injustice, who has conceived toil. Now he brings forth what, save that with which he has travailed, although he has not travailed with that which he conceived? For that is not born, which is not conceived; but seed is conceived, that which is formed from the seed is born. Toil is then the seed of iniquity, but sin the conception of toil, that is, that first sin, to depart from God. Sirach 10:12 He then has travailed with injustice, who has conceived toil. And he has brought forth iniquity. Iniquity is the same as injustice: he has brought forth then that with which he travailed. What follows next?

17. He has opened a ditch, and dug it Psalm 7:15. To open a ditch is, in earthly matters, that is, as it were in the earth, to prepare deceit, that another fall therein, whom the unrighteous man wishes to deceive. Now this ditch is opened when consent is given to the evil suggestion of earthly lusts: but it is dug when after consent we press on to actual work of deceit. But how can it be, that iniquity should rather hurt the righteous man against whom it proceeds, than the unrighteous heart whence it proceeds? Accordingly, the stealer of money, for instance, while he desires to inflict painful harm upon another, is himself maimed by the wound of avarice. Now who, even out of his right mind, sees not how great is the difference between these men, when one suffers the loss of money, the other of innocence? He will fall then into the pit which he has made. As it is said in another Psalm, The Lord is known in executing judgments; the sinner is caught in the works of his own hands.

18. His toil shall be turned on his head, and his iniquity shall descend on his pate Psalm 7:16. For he had no mind to escape sin: but was brought under sin as a slave, so to say, as the Lord says, Whosoever sins is a slave. John 8:34 His iniquity then will be upon him, when he is subject to his iniquity; for he could not say to the Lord, what the innocent and upright say, My glory, and the lifter up of my head. He then will be in such wise below, as that his iniquity may be above, and descend on him; for that it weighs him down and burdens him, and suffers him not to fly back to the rest of the saints. This occurs, when in an ill regulated man reason is a slave, and lust has dominion.

19. I will confess to the Lord according to His justice Psalm 7:17. This is not the sinner's confession: for he says this, who said above most truly, If there be iniquity in my hands: but it is a confession of God's justice, in which we speak thus, Verily, O Lord, You are just, in that You both so protect the just, that You enlighten them by Yourself; and so order sinners, that they be punished not by Your malice, but by their own. This confession so praises the Lord, that the blasphemies of the ungodly can avail nothing, who, willing to excuse their evil deeds, are unwilling to attribute to their own fault that they sin, that is, are unwilling to attribute their fault to their fault. Accordingly they find either fortune or fate to accuse, or the devil, to whom He who made us has willed that it should be in our power to refuse consent: or they bring in another nature, which is not of God: wretched waverers, and erring, rather than confessing to God, that He should pardon them. For it is not fit that any be pardoned, except he says, I have sinned. He, then, that sees the deserts of souls so ordered by God, that while each has his own given him, the fair beauty of the universe is in no part violated, in all things praises God: and this is not the confession of sinners, but of the righteous. For it is not the sinner's confession when the Lord says, I confess to You, O Lord of heaven and earth, because You have hid these things from the wise, and revealed them to babes. Matthew 11:25 Likewise in Ecclesiasticus it is said, Confess to the Lord in all His works: and in confession you shall say this, All the works of the Lord are exceeding good. Which can be seen in this Psalm, if any one with a pious mind, by the Lord's help, distinguish between the rewards of the righteous and the penalties of the sinners, how that in these two the whole creation, which God made and rules, is adorned with a beauty wondrous and known to few. Thus then he says, I will confess to the Lord according to His justice, as one who saw that darkness was not made by God, but ordered nevertheless. For God said, Let light be made, and light was made. Genesis 1:3 He did not say, Let darkness be made, and darkness was made: and yet He ordered it. And therefore it is said, God divided between the light, and the darkness: and God called the light day, and the darkness He called night. Genesis 1:4-5 This is the distinction, He made the one and ordered it: but the other He made not, but yet He ordered this too. But now that sins are signified by darkness, so is it seen in the Prophet, who says, And your darkness shall be as the noon day: Isaiah 58:10 and in the Apostle, who says, He that hates his brother is in darkness: 1 John 2:11 and above all that text, Let us cast off the works of darkness, and let us put on the armour of light. Romans 13:12 Not that there is any nature of darkness. For all nature, in so far as it is nature, is compelled to be. Now being belongs to light: not being to darkness. He then that leaves Him by whom he was made, and inclines to that whence he was made, that is, to nothing, is in this sin endarkened: and yet he does not utterly perish, but he is ordered among the lowest things. Therefore after the Psalmist said, I will confess unto the Lord: that we might not understand it of confession of sins, he adds lastly, And I will sing to the name of the Lord most high. Now singing has relation to joy, but repentance of sins to sadness.

20. This Psalm can also be taken in the person of the Lord Man: if only that which is there spoken in humiliation be referred to our weakness, which He bore.
"So let us be confident, let us not be unprepared, let us not be outflanked, let us be wise, vigilant, fighting against those who are trying to tear the faith out of our souls and morality out of our hearts, so that we may remain Catholics, remain united to the Blessed Virgin Mary, remain united to the Roman Catholic Church, remain faithful children of the Church."- Abp. Lefebvre
Exposition on Psalm 8
Taken from here.

To the end, for the wine-presses, a psalm of David himself.

1. He seems to say nothing of wine-presses in the text of the Psalm of which this is the title. By which it appears, that one and the same thing is often signified in Scripture by many and various similitudes. We may then take wine-presses to be Churches, on the same principle by which we understand also by a threshing-floor the Church. For whether in the threshing-floor, or in the wine-press, there is nothing else done but the clearing the produce of its covering; which is necessary, both for its first growth and increase, and arrival at the maturity either of the harvest or the vintage. Of these coverings or supporters then; that is, of chaff, on the threshing-floor, the grain; and of husks, in the presses, the wine is stripped: as in the Churches, from the multitude of worldly men, which is collected together with the good, for whose birth and adaptating to the divine word that multitude was necessary, this is effected, that by spiritual love they be separated through the operation of God's ministers. For now so it is that the good are, for a time, separated from the bad, not in space, but in affection: although they have converse together in the Churches, as far as respects bodily presence. But another time will come, the grain will be stored up apart in the granaries, and the wine in the cellars. The wheat, says he, He will lay up in garners; but the chaff He will burn with fire unquenchable. Luke 3:17 The same thing may be thus understood in another similitude: the wine He will lay up in cellars, but the husks He will cast forth to cattle: so that by the bellies of the cattle we may be allowed by way of similitude to understand the pains of hell.

2. There is another interpretation concerning the wine-presses, yet still keeping to the meaning of Churches. For even the Divine Word may be understood by the grape: for the Lord even has been called a Cluster of grapes; which they that were sent before by the people of Israel brought from the land of promise hanging on a staff, crucified as it were. Numbers 13:23 Accordingly, when the Divine Word makes use of, by the necessity of declaring Himself, the sound of the voice, whereby to convey Himself to the ears of the hearers; in the same sound of the voice, as it were in husks, knowledge, like the wine, is enclosed: and so this grape comes into the ears, as into the pressing machines of the wine-pressers. For there the separation is made, that the sound may reach as far as the ear; but knowledge be received in the memory of those that hear, as it were in a sort of vat; whence it passes into discipline of the conversation and habit of mind, as from the vat into the cellar: where if it do not through negligence grow sour, it will acquire soundness by age. For it grew sour among the Jews, and this sour vinegar they gave the Lord to drink. John 19:29 For that wine, which from the produce of the vine of the New Testament the Lord is to drink with His saints in the kingdom of His Father, Matthew 26:29 must needs be most sweet and most sound.

3. Wine-presses are also usually taken for martyrdoms, as if when they who have confessed the name of Christ have been trodden down by the blows of persecution, their mortal remains as husks remained on earth, but their souls flowed forth into the rest of a heavenly habitation. Nor yet by this interpretation do we depart from the fruitfulness of the Churches. It is sung then, for the wine-presses, for the Church's establishment; when our Lord after His resurrection ascended into heaven. For then He sent the Holy Ghost: by whom the disciples being fulfilled preached with confidence the Word of God, that Churches might be collected.

4. Accordingly it is said, O Lord, our Lord, how admirable is Your Name in all the earth! Psalm 8:1. I ask, how is His Name wonderful in all the earth? The answer is, For Your glory has been raised above the heavens. So that the meaning is this, O Lord, who art our Lord, how do all that inhabit the earth admire You! For Your glory has been raised from earthly humiliation above the heavens. For hence it appeared who You were that descended, when it was by some seen, and by the rest believed, whither it was that You ascended.

5. Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings You have made perfect praise, because of Your enemies Psalm 8:2. I cannot take babes and sucklings to be any other than those to whom the Apostle says, As unto babes in Christ I have given you milk to drink, not meat. 1 Corinthians 3:1-2 Who were meant by those who went before the Lord praising Him, of whom the Lord Himself used this testimony, when He answered the Jews who bade Him rebuke them, Have ye not read, out of the mouth of babes and sucklings You have made perfect praise? Matthew 21:16 Now with good reason He says not, You have made, but, You have made perfect praise. For there are in the Churches also those who now no more drink milk, but eat meat: whom the same Apostle points out, saying, We speak wisdom among them that are perfect; 1 Corinthians 2:6 but not by those only are the Churches perfected; for if there were only these, little consideration would be had of the human race. But consideration is had, when they too, who are not as yet capable of the knowledge of things spiritual and eternal, are nourished by the faith of the temporal history, which for our salvation after the Patriarchs and Prophets was administered by the most excellent Power and Wisdom of God, even in the Sacrament of the assumed Manhood, in which there is salvation for every one that believes; to the end that moved by Its authority each one may obey Its precepts, whereby being purified and rooted and grounded in love, he may be able to run with Saints, no more now a child in milk, but a young man in meat, to comprehend the breadth, the length, the height, and depth, to know also the surpassing knowledge of the love of Christ. Ephesians 3:17-19

6. Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings You have made perfect praise, because of Your enemies. By enemies to this dispensation, which has been wrought through Jesus Christ and Him crucified, we ought generally to understand all who forbid belief in things unknown, 1 Corinthians 2:6-10 and promise certain knowledge: as all heretics do, and they who in the superstition of the Gentiles are called philosophers. Not that the promise of knowledge is to be blamed; but because they deem the most healthful and necessary step of faith is to be neglected, by which we must needs ascend to something certain, which nothing but that which is eternal can be. Hence it appears that they do not possess even this knowledge, which in contempt of faith they promise; seeing that they know not so useful and necessary a step thereof. Out of the mouth, then of babes and sucklings You have made perfect praise, You, our Lord, declaring first by the Apostle, Unless you believe, you shall not understand; and saying by His own mouth, Blessed are they that have not seen, and shall believe. John 20:29 Because of the enemies: against whom too that is said, I confess to You, O Lord of heaven and earth, because You have hid these things from the wise, and revealed them unto babes. Matthew 11:25 From the wise, he says, not the really wise, but those who deem themselves such. That You may destroy the enemy and the defender. Whom but the heretic? For he is both an enemy and a defender, who when he would assault the Christian faith, seems to defend it. Although the philosophers too of this world may be well taken as the enemies and defenders: forasmuch as the Son of God is the Power and Wisdom of God by which every one is enlightened who is made wise by the truth: of which they profess themselves to be lovers, whence too their name of philosophers; and therefore they seem to defend it, while they are its enemies, since they cease not to recommend noxious superstitions, that the elements of this world should be worshipped and revered.

7. For I shall see Your heavens, the works of Your fingers Psalm 8:3. We read that the law was written with the finger of God, and given through Moses, His holy servant: by which finger of God many understand the Holy Ghost. Wherefore if, by the fingers of God, we are right in understanding these same ministers filled with the Holy Ghost, by reason of this same Spirit which works in them, since by them all holy Scripture has been completed for us; we understand consistently with this, that, in this place, the books of both Testaments are called the heavens. Now it is said too of Moses himself, by the magicians of king Pharaoh, when they were conquered by him, This is the finger of God. Exodus 8:19 And what is written, The heavens shall be rolled up as a book. Although it be said of this æthereal heaven, yet naturally, according to the same image, the heavens of books are named by allegory. For I shall see, he says, the heavens, the works of Your fingers: that is, I shall discern and understand the Scriptures, which You, by the operation of the Holy Ghost, hast written by Your ministers.

8. Accordingly the heavens named above also may be interpreted as the same books, where he says, For Your glory has been raised above the heavens: so that the complete meaning should be this, For Your glory has been raised above the heavens; for Your glory has exceeded the declarations of all the Scriptures: Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings You have made perfect praise, that they should begin by belief in the Scriptures, who would arrive at the knowledge of Your glory: which has been raised above the Scriptures, in that it passes by and transcends the announcements of all words and languages. Therefore has God lowered the Scriptures even to the capacity of babes and sucklings, as it is sung in another Psalm, And He lowered the heaven, and came down: and this did He because of the enemies, who through pride of talkativeness, being enemies of the cross of Christ, even when they do speak some truth, still cannot profit babes and sucklings. So is the enemy and defender destroyed, who, whether he seem to defend wisdom, or even the name of Christ, still, from the step of this faith, assaults that truth, which he so readily makes promise of. Whereby too he is convicted of not possessing it; since by assaulting the step thereof, namely faith, he knows not how one should mount up thereto. Hence then is the rash and blind promiser of truth, who is the enemy and defender, destroyed, when the heavens, the works of God's fingers, are seen, that is, when the Scriptures, brought down even to the slowness of babes, are understood; and by means of the lowness of the faith of the history, which was transacted in time, they raise them, well nurtured and strengthened, unto the grand height of the understanding of things eternal, up to those things which they establish. For these heavens, that is, these books, are the works of God's fingers; for by the operation of the Holy Ghost in the Saints they were completed. For they that have regarded their own glory rather than man's salvation, have spoken without the Holy Ghost, in whom are the bowels of the mercy of God.

9. For I shall see the heavens, the works of Your fingers, the moon and the stars, which You have ordained. The moon and stars are ordained in the heavens; since both the Church universal, to signify which the moon is often put, and Churches in the several places particularly, which I imagine to be intimated by the name of stars, are established in the same Scriptures, which we believe to be expressed by the word heavens. But why the moon justly signifies the Church, will be more seasonably considered in another Psalm, where it is said, The sinners have bent their bow, that they may shoot in the obscure moon the upright in heart.

10. What is man, that You are mindful of him? Or the son of man, that You visit him? Psalm 8:4. It may be asked, what distinction there is between man and son of man. For if there were none, it would not be expressed thus, man, or son of man, disjunctively. For if it were written thus, What is man, that You are mindful of him, and son of man, that You visit him? it might appear to be a repetition of the word man. But now when the expression is, man or son of-man, a distinction is more clearly intimated. This is certainly to be remembered, that every son of man is a man; although every man cannot be taken to be a son of man. Adam, for instance, was a man, but not a son of man. Wherefore we may from hence consider and distinguish what is the difference in this place between man and son of man; namely, that they who bear the image of the earthy man, who is not a son of man, should be signified by the name of men; but that they who bear the image of the heavenly Man, 1 Corinthians 15:49 should be rather called sons of men; for the former again is called the old man and the latter the new; but the new is born of the old, since spiritual regeneration is begun by a change of an earthy, and worldly life; and therefore the latter is called son of man. Man then in this place is earthy, but son of man heavenly; and the former is far removed from God, but the latter present with God; and therefore is He mindful of the former, as in far distance from Him; but the latter He visits, with whom being present He enlightens him with His countenance. For salvation is far from sinners; and, The light of Your countenance has been stamped upon us, O Lord. So in another Psalm he says, that men in conjunction with beasts are made whole together with these beasts, not by any present inward illumination, but by the multiplication of the mercy of God, whereby His goodness reaches even to the lowest things; for the wholeness of carnal men is carnal, as of the beasts; but separating the sons of men from those whom being men he joined with cattle, he proclaims that they are made blessed, after a far more exalted method, by the enlightening of the truth itself, and by a certain inundation of the fountain of life. For he speaks thus: Men and beasts You will make whole, O Lord, as Your mercy has been multiplied, O God. But the sons of men shall put their trust in the covering of Your wings. They shall be inebriated with the richness of Your house, and of the torrent of Your pleasures You shall make them drink. For with You is the fountain of life, and in Your light shall we see light. Extend Your mercy to them that know You. Through the multiplication of mercy then He is mindful of man, as of beasts; for that multiplied mercy reaches even to them that are afar off; but He visits the son of man, over whom, placed under the covering of His wings, He extends mercy, and in His light gives light, and makes him drink of His pleasures, and inebriates him with the richness of His house, to forget the sorrows and the wanderings of his former conversation. This son of man, that is, the new man, the repentance of the old man begets with pain and tears. He, though new, is nevertheless called yet carnal, while he is fed with milk; I would not speak unto you as unto spiritual, but as unto carnal, says the Apostle. And to show that they were already regenerate, he says, As unto babes in Christ, I have given you milk to drink, not meat. And when he relapses, as often happens, to the old life, he hears in reproof that he is a man; Are you not men, he says, and walk as men?

11. Therefore was the son of man first visited in the person of the very Lord Man, born of the Virgin Mary. Of whom, by reason of the very weakness of the flesh, which the Wisdom of God vouchsafed to bear, and the humiliation of the Passion, it is justly said, You have lowered Him a little lower than the Angels Psalm 8:5. But that glorifying is added, in which He rose and ascended up into heaven; With glory, he says, and with honour have You crowned Him; and hast set Him over the works of Your hands Psalm 8:6. Since even Angels are the works of God's hands, even over Angels we understand the Only-begotten Son to have been set; whom we hear and believe, by the humiliation of the carnal generation and passion, to have been lowered a little lower than the Angels.

12. You have put, he says, all things in subjection under His feet. When he says, all things, he excepts nothing. And that he might not be allowed to understand it otherwise, the Apostle enjoins it to be believed thus, when he says, He being excepted which put all things under Him. 1 Corinthians 15:27 And to the Hebrews he uses this very testimony from this Psalm, when he would have it to be understood that all things are in such sort put under our Lord Jesus Christ, as that nothing should be excepted. Hebrews 2:8 And yet he does not seem, as it were, to subjoin any great thing, when he says, All sheep and oxen, yea, moreover, the beasts of the field, birds of the air, and the fish of the sea, which walk through the paths of the sea Psalm 8:7. For, leaving the heavenly excellencies and powers, and all the hosts of Angels, leaving even man himself, he seems to have put under Him the beasts merely; unless by sheep and oxen we understand holy souls, either yielding the fruit of innocence, or even working that the earth may bear fruit, that is, that earthly men may be regenerated unto spiritual richness. By these holy souls then we ought to understand not those of men only, but of all Angels too, if we would gather from hence that all things are put under our Lord Jesus Christ. For there will be no creature that will not be put under Him, under whom the pre-eminent spirits, that I may so speak, are put. But whence shall we prove that sheep can be interpreted even, not of men, but of the blessed spirits of the angelical creatures on high? May we from the Lord's saying that He had left ninety and nine sheep in the mountains, that is, in the higher regions, and had come down for one? For if we take the one lost sheep to be the human soul in Adam, since Eve even was made out of his side, Genesis 2:21-22 for the spiritual handling and consideration of all which things this is not the time, it remains that, by the ninety and nine left in the mountains, spirits not human, but angelical, should be meant. For as regards the oxen, this sentence is easily dispatched; since men themselves are for no other reason called oxen, but because by preaching the Gospel of the word of God they imitate Angels, as where it is said, You shall not muzzle the ox that treads out the grain. How much more easily then do we take the Angels themselves, the messengers of truth, to be oxen, when Evangelists by the participation of their title are called oxen? You have put under therefore, he says, all sheep and oxen, that is, all the holy spiritual creation; in which we include that of holy men, who are in the Church, in those wine-presses to wit, which are intimated under the other similitude of the moon and stars.

13. Yea moreover, says he, the beasts of the field. The addition of moreover is by no means idle. First, because by beasts of the plain may be understood both sheep and oxen: so that, if goats are the beasts of rocky and mountainous regions, sheep may be well taken to be the beasts of the field. Accordingly had it been written even thus, all sheep and oxen and beasts of the field; it might be reasonably asked what beasts of the plain meant, since even sheep and oxen could be taken as such. But the addition of moreover besides, obliges us, beyond question, to recognise some difference or another. But under this word, moreover, not only beasts of the field, but also birds of the air, and fish of the sea, which walk through the paths of the sea Psalm 8:8, are to be taken in. What is then this distinction? Call to mind the wine-presses, holding husks and wine; and the threshing-floor, containing chaff and grain; and the nets, in which were enclosed good fish and bad; and the Ark of Noah, in which were both unclean and clean animals: and you will see that the Churches for a while, now in this time, unto the last time of judgment, contain not only sheep and oxen, that is, holy laymen and holy ministers, but moreover beasts of the field, birds of the air, and birds of the sea, that walk through the paths of the sea. For the beasts of the field were very fitly understood, as men rejoicing in the pleasure of the flesh where they mount up to nothing high, nothing laborious. For the field is also the broad way, that leads to destruction: Matthew 7:13 and in a field is Abel slain. Genesis 4:8 Wherefore there is cause to fear, lest one coming down from the mountains of God's righteousness (for your righteousness, he says, is as the mountains of God ) making choice of the broad and easy paths of carnal pleasure, be slain by the devil. See now too the birds of heaven, the proud, of whom it is said, They have set their mouth against the heaven. See how they are carried on high by the wind, who say, We will magnify our tongue, our lips are our own, who is our Lord? Behold too the fish of the sea, that is, the curious; who walk through the paths of the sea, that is, search in the deep after the temporal things of this world: which, like paths in the sea, vanish and perish, as quickly as the water comes together again after it has given room, in their passage, to ships, or to whatsoever walks or swims. For he said not merely, who walk the paths of the sea; but walk through, he said; showing the very determined earnestness of those who seek after vain and fleeting things. Now these three kinds of vice, namely, the pleasure of the flesh, and pride, and curiosity, include all sins. And they appear to me to be enumerated by the Apostle John, when he says, Love not the world; for all that is in the world is the lust of the flesh, and the lust of the eyes, and the pride of life. 1 John 2:15-16 For through the eyes especially prevails curiosity. To what the rest indeed belong is clear. And that temptation of the Lord Man was threefold: by food, that is, by the lust of the flesh, where it is suggested, command these stones that they be made bread: Matthew 4:3 by vain boasting, where, when stationed on a mountain, all the kingdoms of this earth are shown Him, and promised if He would worship: Matthew 4:8-9 by curiosity, where, from the pinnacle of the temple, He is advised to cast Himself down, for the sake of trying whether He would be borne up by Angels. Matthew 4:6 And accordingly after that the enemy could prevail with Him by none of these temptations, this is said of him, When the devil had ended all his temptation. Luke 4:13 With a reference then to the meaning of the wine-presses, not only the wine, but the husks too are put under His feet; to wit, not only sheep and oxen, that is, the holy souls of believers, either in the laity, or in the ministry; but moreover both beasts of pleasure, and birds of pride, and fish of curiosity. All which classes of sinners we see mingled now in the Churches with the good and holy. May He work then in His Churches, and separate the wine from the husks: let us give heed, that we be wine, and sheep or oxen; not husks, or beasts of the field, or birds of heaven, or fish of the sea, which walk through the paths of the sea. Not that these names can be understood and explained in this way only, but the explanation of them must be according to the place where they are found. For elsewhere they have other meanings. And this rule must be kept to in every allegory, that what is expressed by the similitude should be considered agreeably to the meaning of the particular place: for this is the manner of the Lord's and the Apostles' teaching. Let us repeat then the last verse, which is also put at the beginning of the Psalm, and let us praise God, saying, O Lord our Lord, how wonderful is Your name in all the earth! For fitly, after the matter of the discourse, is the return made to the heading, whither all that discourse must be referred.
"So let us be confident, let us not be unprepared, let us not be outflanked, let us be wise, vigilant, fighting against those who are trying to tear the faith out of our souls and morality out of our hearts, so that we may remain Catholics, remain united to the Blessed Virgin Mary, remain united to the Roman Catholic Church, remain faithful children of the Church."- Abp. Lefebvre
Exposition on Psalm 9
Taken from here.

1. The inscription of this Psalm is, To the end for the hidden things of the Son, a Psalm of David himself. As to the hidden things of the Son there may be a question: but since he has not added whose, the very only-begotten Son of God should be understood. For where a Psalm has been inscribed of the son of David, When, he says, he fled from the face of Absalom his son; although his name even was mentioned, and therefore there could be no obscurity as to whom it was spoken of: yet it is not merely said, from the face of son Absalom; but his is added. But here both because his is not added, and much is said of the Gentiles, it cannot properly be taken of Absalom. 2 Samuel xv For the war which that abandoned one waged with his father, no way relates to the Gentiles, since there the people of Israel only were divided against themselves. This Psalm is then sung for the hidden things of the only-begotten Son of God. For the Lord Himself too, when, without addition, He uses the word Son, would have Himself, the Only-begotten to be understood; as where He says, If the Son shall make you free, then shall you be free indeed. John 8:36 For He said not, the Son of God; but in saying merely, Son, He gives us to understand whose Son it is. Which form of expression nothing admits of, save His excellency of whom we so speak, that, though we name Him not, He can be understood. For so we say, it rains, clears up, thunders, and such like expressions; and we do not add who does it all; for that the excellency of the doer spontaneously presents itself to all men's minds, and does not want words. What then are the hidden things of the Son? By which expression we must first understand that there are some things of the Son manifest, from which those are distinguished which are called hidden. Wherefore since we believe two advents of the Lord, one past, which the Jews understood not: the other future, which we both hope for; and since the one which the Jews understood not, profited the Gentiles; For the hidden things of the Son is not unsuitably understood to be spoken of this advent, in which blindness in part is happened to Israel, that the fullness of the Gentiles might come in. Romans 11:25

For notice of two judgments is conveyed to us throughout the Scriptures, if any one will give heed to them, one hidden, the other manifest. The hidden one is passing now, of which the Apostle Peter says, The time has come that judgment should begin from the house of the Lord. 1 Peter 4:17 The hidden judgment accordingly is the pain, by which now each man is either exercised to purification, or warned to conversion, or if he despise the calling and discipline of God, is blinded unto damnation. But the manifest judgment is that in which the Lord, at His coming, will judge the quick and the dead, all men confessing that it is He by whom both rewards shall be assigned to the good, and punishments to the evil. But then that confession will avail, not to the remedy of evils, but to the accumulation of damnation. Of these two judgments, the one hidden, the other manifest, the Lord seems to me to have spoken, where He says, Whoever believes in Me has passed from death unto life, and shall not come into judgment; John 5:24 into the manifest judgment, that is. For that which passes from death unto life by means of some affliction, whereby He scourges every son whom He receives, Hebrews 12:6 is the hidden judgment. But whoever believes not, says He, has been judged already: John 3:18 that is, by this hidden judgment has been already prepared for that manifest one. These two judgments we read of also in Wisdom, whence it is written, Therefore unto them, as to children without the use of reason, You gave a judgment to mock them; But they that have not been corrected by this judgment have felt a judgment worthy of God. Wisdom 12:25-26 Whoever then are not corrected by this hidden judgment of God, shall most worthily be punished by that manifest one....

2. I will confess unto You, O Lord, with my whole heart Psalm 9:1. He does not, with a whole heart, confess unto God, who doubts of His Providence in any particular: but he who sees already the hidden things of the wisdom of God, how great is His invisible reward, who says, We rejoice in tribulations; Romans 5:3 and how all torments, which are inflicted on the body, are either for the exercising of those that are converted to God, or for warning that they be converted, or for just preparation of the obdurate unto their last damnation: and so now all things are referred to the governance of Divine Providence, which fools think done as it were by chance and at random, and without any Divine ordering. I will tell all Your marvels. He tells all God's marvels, who sees them performed not only openly on the body, but invisibly indeed too in the soul, but far more sublimely and excellently. For men earthly, and led wholly by the eye, marvel more that the dead Lazarus rose again in the body, than that Paul the persecutor rose again in soul. But since the visible miracle calls the soul to the light, but the invisible enlightens the soul that comes when called, he tells all God's marvels, who, by believing the visible, passes on to the understanding of the invisible.

3. I will be glad and exult in You Psalm 9:2. Not any more in this world, not in pleasure of bodily dalliance, not in relish of palate and tongue, not in sweetness of perfumes, not in joyousness of passing sounds, not in the variously colored forms of figure, not in vanities of men's praise, not in wedlock and perishable offspring, not in superfluity of temporal wealth, not in this world's getting, whether it extend over place and space, or be prolonged in time's succession: but, I will be glad and exult in You, namely, in the hidden things of the Son, where the light of Your countenance has been stamped on us, O Lord: for, You will hide them, says he, in the hiding place of Your countenance. He then will be glad and exult in You, who tells all Your marvels. And He will tell all Your marvels (since it is now spoken of prophetically), who came not to do His own will, but the will of Him who sent Him. John 6:38

4. For now the Person of the Lord begins to appear speaking in this Psalm. For it follows, I will sing to Your Name, O Most High, in turning mine enemy behind. His enemy then, where was he turned back? Was it when it was said to him, Get behind, Satan? Matthew 16:23 For then he who by tempting desired to put himself before, was turned behind, by failing in deceiving Him who was tempted, and by availing nothing against Him. For earthly men are behind: but the heavenly man is preferred before, although he came after. For the first man is of the earth, earthy: the second Man is from heaven, heavenly. 1 Corinthians 15:47 But from this stock he came by whom it was said, He who comes after me is preferred before me. John 1:15 And the Apostle forgets those things that are behind, and reaches forth unto those things that are before. Philippians 3:13 The enemy, therefore, was turned behind, after that he could not deceive the heavenly Man being tempted; and he turned himself to earthy men, where he can have dominion....For in truth the devil is turned behind, even in the persecution of the righteous, and he, much more to their advantage, is a persecutor, than if he went before as a leader and a prince. We must sing then to the Name of the Most High in turning the enemy behind: since we ought to choose rather to fly from him as a persecutor, than to follow him as a leader. For we have whither we may fly and hide ourselves in the hidden things of the Son; seeing that the Lord has been made a refuge for us.

5. They will be weakened, and perish from Your face Psalm 9:3. Who will be weakened and perish, but the unrighteous and ungodly? They will be weakened, while they shall avail nothing; and they shall perish, because the ungodly will not be; from the face of God, that is, from the knowledge of God, as he perished who said, But now I live not, but Christ lives in me. Galatians 2:20 But why will the ungodly be weakened and perish from your face? Because, he says, You have made my judgment, and my cause: that is, the judgment in which I seemed to be judged, You have made mine; and the cause in which men condemned me just and innocent, You have made mine. For such things served Him for our deliverance: as sailors too call the wind theirs, which they take advantage of for prosperous sailing.

6. You sat on the throne Who judgest equity Psalm 9:4. Whether the Son say this to the Father, who said also, You could have no power against Me, except it were given you from above, John 19:11 referring this very thing, that the Judge of men was judged for men's advantage, to the Father's equity and His own hidden things: or whether man say to God, You sat on the throne Who judgest equity, giving the name of God's throne to his soul, so that his body may perhaps be the earth, which is called God's footstool: Isaiah 66:1 for God was in Christ, reconciling the world unto Himself: 2 Corinthians 5:19 or whether the soul of the Church, perfect now and without spot and wrinkle, Ephesians 5:27 worthy, that is, of the hidden things of the Son, in that the King has brought her into His chamber, Song of Songs 1:4 say to her spouse, You sat upon the throne Who judgest equity, in that You have risen from the dead, and ascended up into heaven, and sittest at the right hand of the Father: whichsoever, I say, of those opinions, whereunto this verse may be referred, is preferred, it transgresses not the rule of faith.

7. You have rebuked the heathen, and the ungodly has perished Psalm 9:5. We take this to be more suitably said to the Lord Jesus Christ, than said by Him. For who else has rebuked the heathen, and the ungodly perished, save He, who after that He ascended up into heaven, sent the Holy Ghost, that, filled by Him, the Apostles should preach the word of God with boldness, and freely reprove men's sins? At which rebuke the ungodly perished; because the ungodly was justified and was made godly. You have effaced their name for the world, and for the world's world. The name of the ungodly has been effaced. For they are not called ungodly who believe in the true God. Now their name is effaced for the world, that is, as long as the course of the temporal world endures. And for the world's world. What is the world's world, but that whose image and shadow, as it were, this world possesses? For the change of seasons succeeding one another, while the moon is on the wane, and again on the increase, while the sun each year returns to his quarter, while spring, or summer, or autumn, or winter passes away only to return, is in some sort an imitation of eternity. But this world's world is that which abides in immutable eternity. As a verse in the mind, and a verse in the voice, the former is understood, the latter heard; and the former fashions the latter; and hence the former works in art and abides, the latter sounds in the air and passes away. So the fashion of this changeable world is defined by that world unchangeable which is called the world's world. And hence the one abides in the art, that is, in the Wisdom and Power of God: but the other is made to pass in the governance of creation. If after all it be not a repetition, so that after it was said for the world, lest it should be understood of this world that passes away, it were added for the world's world. For in the Greek copies it is thus, εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα, καὶ εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα τοῦ αἰῶνος Which the Latins have for the most rendered, not, for the world, and for the world's world; but, for ever, and for the world's world, that in the words for the world's world. the, words for ever, should be explained. The name, then, of the ungodly You have effaced for ever, for from henceforth the ungodly shall never be. And if their name be not prolonged unto this world, much less unto the world's world.

8. The swords of the enemy have failed at the end Psalm 9:6. Not enemies in the plural, but this enemy in the singular. Now what enemy's swords have failed but the devil's? Now these are understood to be various erroneous opinions, whereby as with swords he destroys souls. In overcoming these swords, and in bringing them to failure, that sword is employed, of which it is said in the seventh Psalm, If you be not converted, He will brandish His sword. And perhaps this is the end, against which the swords of the enemy fail; since up to it they are of some avail. Now it works secretly, but in the last judgment it will be brandished openly. By it the cities are destroyed. For so it follows, The swords of the enemy have failed at the end: and You have destroyed the cities. Cities indeed wherein the devil rules, where crafty and deceitful counsels hold, as it were, the place of a court, on which supremacy attend as officers and ministers the services of all the members, the eyes for curiosity, the ears for lasciviousness, or for whatsoever else is gladly listened to that bears on evil, the hands for rapine or any other violence or pollution soever, and all the other members after this manner serving the tyrannical supremacy, that is, perverse counsels. Of this city the commonalty, as it were, are all soft affections and disturbing emotions of the mind, stirring up daily seditions in a man. So then where a king, where a court, where ministers, where commonalty are found, there is a city. Now again would such things be in bad cities, unless they were first in individual men, who are, as it were, the elements and seeds of cities. These cities He destroys, when on the prince being shut out thence, of whom it was said, The prince of this world has been cast out, John 12:31 these kingdoms are wasted by the word of truth, evil counsels are laid to sleep, vile affections tamed, the ministries of the members and senses taken captive, and transferred to the service of righteousness and good works: that as the Apostle says, Sin should no more reign in our mortal body, Romans 6:12 and so forth. Then is the soul at peace, and the man is disposed to receive rest and blessedness. Their memorial has perished with uproar: with the uproar, that is, of the ungodly. But it is said, with uproar, either because when ungodliness is overturned, there is uproar made: for none passes to the highest place, where there is the deepest silence, but he who with much uproar shall first have warred with his own vices: or with uproar, is said, that the memory of the ungodly should perish in the perishing even of the very uproar, in which ungodliness riots.

9. And the Lord abides for ever Psalm 9:7. Wherefore then have the heathen raged, and the people imagined vain things against the Lord, and against His anointed: for the Lord abides forever. He has prepared His seat in judgment, and He shall judge the world in equity. He prepared His seat when He was judged. For by that patience Man purchased heaven, and God in Man profited believers. And this is the Son's hidden judgment. But seeing He is also to come openly and in the sight of all to judge the quick and the dead, He has prepared His seat in the hidden judgment: and He shall also openly judge the world in equity: that is, He shall distribute gifts proportioned to desert, setting the sheep on His right hand, and the goats on His left. Matthew 25:33 He shall judge the people with justice Psalm 9:8. This is the same as was said above, He shall judge the world in equity. Not as men judge who see not the heart, by whom very often worse men are acquitted than are condemned: but in equity and with justice shall the Lord judge, conscience bearing witness, and thoughts accusing, or else excusing. Romans 2:15

10. And the Lord has become a refuge to the poor Psalm 9:9. Whatsoever be the persecutions of that enemy, who has been turned behind, what harm shall he do to them whose refuge the Lord has become? But this will be, if in this world, in which that one has an office of power, they shall choose to be poor, by loving nothing which either here leaves a man while he lives and loves, or is left by him when he dies. For to such a poor man has the Lord become a refuge, an Helper in due season, in tribulation. Lo, He makes poor, for He scourges every son whom He receives. Hebrews 12:6 For what an Helper in due season is, he explained by adding in tribulation. For the soul is not turned to God, save when it is turned away from this world: nor is it more seasonably turned away from this world, except toils and pains be mingled with its trifling and hurtful and destructive pleasures.

11. And let them who know Your Name, hope in You Psalm 9:10, when they shall have ceased hoping in wealth, and in the other enticements of this world. For the soul indeed that seeks where to fix her hope, when she is torn away from this world, the knowledge of God's Name seasonably receives. For the mere Name of God has now been published everywhere: but the knowledge of the name is, when He is known whose name it is. For the name is not a name for its own sake, but for that which it signifies. Now it has been said, The Lord is His Name. Jeremiah 33:2 Wherefore whoever willingly submits himself to God as His servant, has known this name. And let them who know Your Name hope in You Psalm 9:10. Again, the Lord says to Moses, I am That I am; and You shall say to the children of Israel, I Am, has sent me. Exodus 3:14 Let them then who know Your Name, hope in You; that they may not hope in those things which flow by in time's quick revolution, having nothing but will be and has been. For what in them is future, when it arrives, straightway becomes the past; it is awaited with eagerness, it is lost with pain. But in the nature of God nothing will be, as if it were not yet; or has been, as if it were no longer: but there is only that which is, and this is eternity. Let them cease then to hope in and love things temporal, and let them apply themselves to hope eternal, who know His name who said, I am That I am; and of whom it was said, I Am has sent me. Exodus 3:14 For You have not forsaken them that seek You, O Lord. Whoever seek Him, seek no more things transient and perishable; For no man can serve two masters. Matthew 6:24

12. Sing to the Lord, who dwells in Sion Psalm 9:11, is said to them, whom the Lord forsakes not as they seek Him. He dwells in Sion, which is interpreted watching, and which bears the likeness of the Church that now is; as Jerusalem bears the likeness of the Church that is to come, that is, the city of Saints already enjoying life angelical; for Jerusalem is by interpretation the vision of peace. Now watching goes before vision, as this Church goes before that one which is promised, the city immortal and eternal. But in time it goes before, not in dignity: because more honourable is that whither we are striving to arrive, than what we practise, that we may attain to arrive; now we practise watching, that we may arrive at vision. But again this same Church which now is, unless the Lord inhabit her, the most earnest watching might run into any sort of error. And to this Church it was said, For the temple of God is holy, which temple you are: 1 Corinthians 3:17 again, that Christ may dwell in the inner man in your hearts by faith. Ephesians 3:17 It is enjoined us then, that we sing to the Lord who dwells in Sion, that with one accord we praise the Lord, the Inhabitant of the Church. Show forth His wonders among the heathen. It has both been done, and will not cease to be done.

13. For requiring their blood He has remembered Psalm 9:12. As if they, who were sent to preach the Gospel, should make answer to that injunction which has been mentioned, Show forth His wonders among the heathen, and should say, O Lord, who has believed our report? Isaiah 53:1 and again, For Your sake we are killed all the day long; the Psalmist suitably goes on to say, That Christians not without great reward of eternity will die in persecution, for requiring their blood He has remembered. But why did he choose to say, their blood? Was it, as if one of imperfect knowledge and less faith should ask, How will they show them forth, seeing that the infidelity of the heathen will rage against them; and he should be answered, For requiring their blood He has remembered, that is, the last judgment will come, in which both the glory of the slain and the punishment of the slayers shall be made manifest? But let no one suppose He has remembered to be so used, as though forgetfulness can attach to God; but since the judgment will be after a long interval, it is used in accordance with the feeling of weak men, who think God has forgotten, because He does not act so speedily as they wish. To such is said what follows also, He has not forgotten the cry of the poor: that is, He has not, as you suppose, forgotten. As if they should on hearing, He has remembered, say, Then He had forgotten; No, He has not forgotten, says the Psalmist, the cry of the poor.

14. But I ask, what is that cry of the poor, which God forgets not? Is it that cry, the words whereof are these, Pity me, O Lord, see my humiliation at the hands of my enemies? Psalm 9:13. Why then did he not say, Pity us O Lord, see our humiliation at the hands of our enemies, as if many poor were crying; but as if one, Pity me, O Lord? Is it because One intercedes for the Saints, who first for our sakes became poor, though He was rich; 2 Corinthians 8:9 and it is He who says, Who exaltest me from the gates of death Psalm 9:14, that I may declare all Your praises in the gates of the daughter of Sion? For man is exalted in Him, not that Man only which He bears, which is the Head of the Church; but whichsoever one of us also is among the other members, and is exalted from all depraved desires; which are the gates of death, for that through them is the road to death. But the joy in the fruition is at once death itself, when one gains what he has in abandoned wilfulness coveted: for coveting is the root of all evil: 1 Timothy 6:10 and therefore is the gate of death, for the widow that lives in pleasures is dead. 1 Timothy 5:6 At which pleasures we arrive through desires as it were through the gates of death. But all highest purposes are the gates of the daughter of Sion, through which we come to the vision of peace in the Holy Church....Or haply are the gates of death the bodily senses and eyes, which were opened when the man tasted of the forbidden tree, Genesis 3:7 ... and are the gates of the daughter of Sion the sacraments and beginnings of faith, which are opened to them that knock, that they may arrive at the hidden things of the Son?...

15. Then follows, I will exult for Your salvation: that is, with blessedness shall I be holden by Your salvation, which is our Lord Jesus Christ, the Power and Wisdom of God. Therefore says the Church, which is here in affliction and is saved by hope, as long as the hidden judgment of the Son is, in hope she says, I will exult for Your salvation: for now she is worn down either by the roar of violence around her, or by the errors of the heathen. The heathen are fixed in the corruption, which they made Psalm 9:15. Consider ye how punishment is reserved for the sinner, out of his own works; and how they that have wished to persecute the Church, have been fixed in that corruption, which they thought to inflict. For they were desiring to kill the body, while they themselves were dying in soul. In that snare which they hid, has their foot been taken. The hidden snare is crafty devising. The foot of the soul is well understood to be its love: which, when depraved, is called coveting or lust; but when upright, love or charity....And the Apostle says, That being rooted and grounded in love, you may be able to take in. Ephesians 3:17-18 The foot then of sinners, that is, their love, is taken in the snare, which they hide: for when delight shall have followed on to deceitful dealing, when God shall have delivered them over to the lust of their heart; that delight at once binds them, that they dare not tear away their love thence and apply it to profitable objects; for when they shall make the attempt, they will be pained in heart, as if desiring to free their foot from a fetter: and giving way under this pain they refuse to withdraw from pernicious delights. In the snare then which they have hid, that is, in deceitful counsel, their foot has been taken, that is, their love, which through deceit attains to that vain joy whereby pain is purchased.

16. The Lord is known executing judgments Psalm 9:16. These are God's judgments. Not from that tranquillity of His blessedness, nor from the secret places of wisdom, wherein blessed souls are received, is the sword, or fire, or wild beast, or any such thing brought forth, whereby sinners may be tormented: but how are they tormented, and how does the Lord do judgment? In the works, he says, of his own hands has the sinner been caught.

17. Here is interposed, The song of the diapsalma Psalm 9:16: as it were the hidden joy, as far as we can imagine, of the separation which is now made, not in place, but in the affections of the heart, between sinners and the righteous, as of the grain from the chaff, as yet on the floor. And then follows, Let the sinners be turned into hell Psalm 9:17: that is, let them be given into their own hands, when they are spared, and let them be ensnared in deadly delight. All the nations that forget God. Because when they did not think good to retain God in their knowledge, God gave them over to a reprobate mind. Romans 1:28

18. For there shall not be forgetfulness of the poor man to the end Psalm 9:18; who now seems to be in forgetfulness, when sinners are thought to flourish in this world's happiness, and the righteous to be in travail: but the patience, says He, of the poor shall not perish forever. Wherefore there is need of patience now to bear with the evil, who are already separated in will, till they be also separated at the last judgment.

19. Arise, O Lord, let not man prevail Psalm 9:19. The future judgment is prayed for: but before it come, Let the heathen, says he, be judged in Your sight: that is, in secret; which is called in God's sight, with the knowledge of a few holy and righteous ones. Place a lawgiver over them, O Lord. Psalm 9:20. He seems to me to point out Antichrist: of whom the Apostle says, When the man of sin shall be revealed. 2 Thessalonians 2:3 Let the heathen know that they are men. That they who will be set free by the Son of God, and belong to the Son of Man, and be sons of men, that is, new men, may serve man, that is, the old man the sinner, for that they are men.

20. And because it is believed that he is to arrive at so great a pitch of empty glory, and he will be permitted to do so great things, both against all men and against the Saints of God, that then some weak ones shall indeed think that God cares not for human affairs, the Psalmist interposing a diapsalma, adds as it were the voice of men groaning and asking why judgment is deferred.
"So let us be confident, let us not be unprepared, let us not be outflanked, let us be wise, vigilant, fighting against those who are trying to tear the faith out of our souls and morality out of our hearts, so that we may remain Catholics, remain united to the Blessed Virgin Mary, remain united to the Roman Catholic Church, remain faithful children of the Church."- Abp. Lefebvre
Exposition on Psalm 10
Taken from here.

Why, O Lord, says he, have You withdrawn afar off? Psalm 9:1. Then he who thus inquired, as if all on a sudden he understood, or as if he asked, though he knew, that he might teach, adds, You despise in due seasons, in tribulations: that is, You despise seasonably, and causest tribulations to inflame men's minds with longing for Your coming. For that fountain of life is sweeter to them that have much thirst. Therefore he hints the reason of the delay, saying, Whilst the ungodly vaunts himself, the poor man is inflamed Psalm 9:2. Wondrous it is and true with what earnestness of good hope the little ones are inflamed unto an upright living by comparison with sinners. In which mystery it comes to pass, that even heresies are permitted to exist; not that heretics themselves wish this, but because Divine Providence works this result from their sins, which both makes and ordains the light; but orders only the darkness, that by comparison therewith the light may be more pleasant, as by comparison with heretics the discovery of truth is more sweet. For so, by this comparison, the approved, who are known to God, are made manifest among men.

1. They are taken in their thoughts, which they think: that is, their evil thoughts become chains to them. But how become they chains? For the sinner is praised, says he, in the desires of his soul Psalm 9:3. The tongues of flatterers bind souls in sin. For there is pleasure in doing those things, in which not only is no reprover feared, but even an approver heard. And he that does unrighteous deeds is blessed. Hence are they taken in their thoughts, which they think.

2. The sinner has angered the Lord Psalm 9:4. Let no one congratulate the man that prospers in his way, to whose sins no avenger is near, and an approver is by. This is the greater anger of the Lord. For the sinner has angered the Lord, that he should suffer these things, that is, should not suffer the scourging of correction. The sinner has angered the Lord: according to the multitude of His anger He will not search it out. Great is His anger, when He searches not out, when He as it were forgets and marks not sin, and by fraud and wickedness man attains to riches and honours: which will especially be the case in that Antichrist, who will seem to man blessed to that degree, that he will even be thought God. But how great this anger of God is, we are taught by what follows.

3. God is not in his sight, his ways are polluted in all time Psalm 9:5. He that knows what in the soul gives joy and gladness, knows how great an ill it is to be abandoned by the light of truth: since a great ill do men reckon the blindness of their bodily eyes, whereby this light is withdrawn. How great then the punishment he endures, who through the prosperous issue of his sins is brought to that pass, that God is not in his sight, and that his ways are polluted in all time, that is, his thoughts and counsels are unclean! Your judgments are taken away from his face. For the mind conscious of evil, while it seems to itself to suffer no punishment, believes that God does not judge, and so are God's judgments taken away from its face; while this very thing is great condemnation. And he shall have dominion over all his enemies. For so is it delivered, that he will overcome all kings, and alone obtain the kingdom; since too according to the Apostle, who preaches concerning him, He shall sit in the temple of God, exalting himself above all that is worshipped and that is called God. 2 Thessalonians 2:4

4. And seeing that being delivered over to the lust of his own heart, and predestinated to extreme condemnation, he is to come, by wicked arts, to that vain and empty height and rule; therefore it follows, For he has said in his heart, I shall not move from generation to generation without evil Psalm 9:6: that is, my fame and my name will not pass from this generation to the generation of posterity, unless by evil arts I acquire so lofty a principality, that posterity cannot be silent concerning it. For a mind abandoned and void of good arts, and estranged from the light of righteousness, by bad arts devises a passage for itself to a fame so lasting, as is celebrated even in posterity. And they that cannot be known for good, desire that men should speak of them even for ill, provided that their name spread far and wide. And this I think is here meant, I shall not move from generation to generation without evil. There is too another interpretation, if a mind vain and full of error supposes that it cannot come from the mortal generation to the generation of eternity, but by bad arts: which indeed was also reported of Simon, when he thought that he would gain heaven by wicked arts, and pass from the human generation to the generation divine by magic. Acts 8:9 Where then is the wonder, if that man of sin too, who is to fill up all the wickedness and ungodliness, which all false prophets have begun, and to do such great signs; that, if it were possible, he should deceive the very elect, Matthew 24:24 shall say in his heart, I shall not move from generation to generation without evil?

5. Whose mouth is full of cursing and bitterness and deceit Psalm 9:7. For it is a great curse to seek heaven by such abominable arts, and to get together such earnings for acquiring the eternal seat. But of this cursing his mouth is full. For this desire shall not take effect, but within his mouth only will avail to destroy him, who dared promise himself such things with bitterness and deceit, that is, with anger and insidiousness, whereby he is to bring over the multitude to his side. Under his tongue is toil and grief. Nothing is more toilsome than unrighteousness and ungodliness: upon which toil follows grief; for that the toil is not only without fruit, but even unto destruction. Which toil and grief refer to that which he has said in his heart, I shall not be moved from generation to generation without evil. And therefore, under his tongue, not on his tongue, because he will devise these things in silence, and to men will speak other things, that he may appear good and just, and a son of God.

6. He lies in ambush with the rich Psalm 9:8. What rich, but those whom he will load with this world's gifts? And he is therefore said to lie in ambush with them, because he will display their false happiness to deceive men; who, when with a perverted will they desire to be such as they, and seek not the good things eternal, will fall into his snares. That in the dark he may kill the innocent. In the dark, I suppose, is said, where it is not easily understood what should be sought, or what avoided. Now to kill the innocent, is of an innocent to make one guilty.

7. His eyes look against the poor, for he is chiefly to persecute the righteous, of whom it is said, Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven Matthew 5:3 Psalm 9:9. He lies in wait in a secret place, as a lion in his den. By a lion in a den, he means one in whom both violence and deceit will work. For the first persecution of the Church was violent, when by proscriptions, by torments, by murders, the Christians were compelled to sacrifice: another persecution is crafty, which is now conducted by heretics of any kind and false brethren: there remains a third, which is to come by Antichrist, than which there is nothing more perilous; for it will be at once violent and crafty. Violence he will exert in empire, craft in miracles. To the violence, the word lion refers; to craft, the words in his den. And these are again repeated with a change of order. He lies in wait, he says, that he may catch the poor; this has reference to craft: but what follows, To catch the poor while he draws him, is put to the score of violence. For draws means, he brings him to himself by violence, by whatever tortures he can.

8. Again, the two which follow are the same. In his snare he will humble him, is craft Psalm 9:10. He shall decline and fall, while he shall have domination over the poor, is violence. For a snare naturally points to lying in wait: but domination most openly conveys the idea of terror. And well does he say, He will humble him in his snare. For when he shall begin to do those signs, the more wonderful they shall appear to men, the more those Saints that shall be then will be despised, and, as it were, set at nought: he, whom they shall resist by righteousness and innocence, shall seem to overcome by the marvels that he does. But he shall decline and fall, while he shall have domination over the poor; that is, while he shall inflict whatsoever punishments he will upon the servants of God that resist him.

9. But how shall he decline, and fall? For he has said in his heart, God has forgotten; He turns away His face, that He see not unto the end Psalm 9:11. This is declining, and the most wretched fall, while the mind of a man prospers as it were in its iniquities, and thinks that it is spared; when it is being blinded, and kept for an extreme and timely vengeance: of which the Psalmist now speaks: Arise, O Lord God, let Your hand be exalted Psalm 9:12: that is, let Your power be made manifest. Now he had said above, Arise, O Lord, let not man prevail, let the heathen be judged in Your sight: that is, in secret, where God alone sees. This comes to pass when the ungodly have arrived at what seems great happiness to men: over whom is placed a lawgiver, such as they had deserved to have, of whom it is said, Place a lawgiver over them, O Lord, let the heathen know that they are men. But now after that hidden punishment and vengeance it is said, Arise, O Lord God, let Your hand be exalted; not of course in secret, but now in glory most manifest. That You forget not the poor unto the end; that is, as the ungodly think, who say, God has forgotten, He turns away His face, that He should not see unto the end. Now they deny that God sees unto the end, who say that He cares not for things human and earthly, for the earth is as it were the end of things; in that it is the last element, in which men labour in most orderly sort, but they cannot see the order of their labours, which specially belongs to the hidden things of the Son. The Church then labouring in such times, like a ship in great waves and tempests, awakes the Lord as if He were sleeping, that He should command the winds, and calm should be restored. Matthew 8:24-26 He says therefore, Arise, O Lord God, let Your hand be exalted, that You forget not the poor unto the end.

10. Accordingly understanding now the manifest judgment, and in exultation at it, they say, Wherefore has the ungodly angered God? Psalm 9:13; that is, what has it profited him to do so great evil? For he said in his heart, He will not require it. Then follows, For You see toil and considerest anger, to deliver them into Your hands Psalm 9:14. This sentence looks for distinct explanation, wherein if there shall be error it becomes obscure. For thus has the ungodly said in his heart, God will not require it, as though God regarded toil and anger, to deliver them into His hands; that is, as though He feared toil and anger, and for this reason would spare them, lest their punishment be too burdensome to Him, or lest He should be disturbed by the storm of anger: as men generally act, excusing themselves of vengeance, to avoid toil or anger.

11. The poor has been left unto You. For therefore is he poor, that is, has despised all the temporal goods of this world, that You only may be his hope. You will be a helper to the orphan, that is, to him to whom his father this world, by whom he was born after the flesh, dies, and who can already say, The world has been crucified unto me, and I unto the world. Galatians 6:14 For of such orphans God becomes the Father. The Lord teaches us in truth that His disciples do become orphans, to whom He says, Call no man father on earth. Matthew 23:9 Of which He first Himself gave an example in saying, Who is my mother, and who my brethren? Matthew 12:48 Whence some most mischievous heretics would assert that He had no mother; and they do not see that it follows from this, if they pay attention to these words, that neither had His disciples fathers. For as He said, Who is my mother? so He taught them, when He said, Call no man your father on earth.

12. Break the arm of the sinner and of the malicious Psalm 9:15; of him, namely, of whom it was said above, He shall have dominion over all his enemies. He called his power then, his arm; to which Christ's power is opposed, of which it is said, Arise, O Lord God, let Your hand be exalted. His fault shall be required, and he shall not be found because of it; that is he shall be judged for his sins, and himself shall perish because of his sin. After this, what wonder if there follow, The Lord shall reign for ever and world without end; ye heathen shall perish out of His earth? Psalm 9:16. He uses heathen for sinners and ungodly.

13. The Lord has heard the longing of the poor Psalm 9:17: that longing wherewith they were burning, when in the straits and tribulations of this world they desired the day of the Lord. Your ear has heard the preparation of their heart. This is the preparation of the heart, of which it is sung in another Psalm, My heart is prepared, O God, my heart is prepared: of which the Apostle says, But if we hope for what we see not, we do with patience wait for it. Romans 8:25 Now, by the ear of God, we ought, according to a general rule of interpretation, to understand not a bodily member, but the power whereby He hears; and so (not to repeat this often) by whatever members of His are mentioned, which in us are visible and bodily, must be understood powers of operation. For we must not suppose it anything bodily, in that the Lord God hears not the sound of the voice, but the preparation of the heart.

14. To judge for the orphan and the humble Psalm 9:18: that is, not for him who is conformed to this world, nor for the proud. For it is one thing to judge the orphan, another to judge for the orphan. He judges the orphan even, who condemns him; but he judges for the orphan, who delivers sentence for him. That man add not further to magnify himself upon earth. For they are men, of whom it was said, Place a lawgiver over them, O Lord: let the heathen know that they are men. But he too, who in this same passage is understood to be placed over them, will be man, of whom it is now said, That man add not further to magnify himself upon earth: namely, when the Son of Man shall come to judge for the orphan, who has put off from himself the old man, and thus, as it were, buried his father.

15. After the hidden things then of the Son, of which, in this Psalm, many things have been said, will come the manifest things of the Son, of which a little has been now said at the end of the same Psalm. But the title is given from the former, which here occupy the larger portion. Indeed, the very day of the Lord's advent may be rightly numbered among the hidden things of the Son, although the very presence of the Lord itself will be manifest. For of that day it is said, that no man knows it, neither angels, nor powers, nor the Son of man. Mark 13:32 What then so hidden, as that which is said to be hidden even to the Judge Himself, not as regards knowledge, but disclosure? But concerning the hidden things of the Son, even if any one would not wish to understand the Son of God, but of David himself, to whose name the whole Psalter is attributed, for the Psalms we know are called the Psalms of David, let him give ear to those words in which it is said to the Lord, Have mercy on us, O Son of David: Matthew 20:30 and so even in this manner let him understand the same Lord Christ, concerning whose hidden things is the inscription of this Psalm. For so likewise is it said by the Angel: God shall give unto Him the throne of His father David. Luke 1:32 Nor to this understanding of it is the sentence opposed in which the same Lord asks of the Jews, If Christ be the Son of David, how then does he in spirit call Him Lord, saying, The Lord said to my Lord, Sit on my right hand, until I put Your enemies under Your feet. Matthew 22:43-44 For it was said to the unskilled, who although they looked for Christ's coming, yet expected Him as man, not as the Power and Wisdom of God. He teaches then, in that place, the most true and pure faith, that He is both the Lord of king David, in that He is the Word in the beginning, God with God, John 1:1 by which all things were made; and Son, in that He was made to him of the seed of David according to the flesh. For He does not say, Christ is not David's Son, but if you already hold that He is his Son, learn how He is his Lord: and do not hold in respect of Christ that He is the Son of Man, for so is He David's Son; Romans 1:3 and leave out that He is the Son of God, for so is He David's Lord.
"So let us be confident, let us not be unprepared, let us not be outflanked, let us be wise, vigilant, fighting against those who are trying to tear the faith out of our souls and morality out of our hearts, so that we may remain Catholics, remain united to the Blessed Virgin Mary, remain united to the Roman Catholic Church, remain faithful children of the Church."- Abp. Lefebvre

Forum Jump:

Users browsing this thread: 1 Guest(s)