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FOURTH SUNDAY AFTER EPIPHANY
Taken from Fr. Leonard Goffine's The Church's Year

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[The Introit of the Mass as on the preceding Sunday.]

COLLECT O God, who knowest us to be set in the midst of so great perils, that because of the frailty of our nature we cannot stand; grant to us health of mind and body, that those things which we suffer for our sins, we may by Thy aid overcome. Through the same Jesus Christ, our Lord &c.

EPISTLE (Romans XIII. 8-10.) Brethren, owe no man anything, but to love one another; for he that loveth his neighbor hath fulfilled the law. For thou shaft not commit adultery; thou shaft not kill; thou shaft not steal; thou shaft not bear false witness; thou shaft not covet; and if there be any other commandment, it is comprised in this word: Thou shaft love thy neighbor as thyself. The love of our neighbor worketh no evil. Love, therefore, is the fulfilling of the law.

Quote:What is meant by St Paul's words: He that loveth his neighbor, hath fulfilled the law?

St. Augustine in reference to these words says: that he who loves his neighbor, fulfils as well the precepts of the first as of the second tablet of the law. The reason is, that the love of our neighbor contains and presupposes the love of God as its fountain and foundation. The neighbor must be loved on account of God; for the neighbor cannot be loved with true love, if we do not first love God. On this account, the holy Evangelist St. John in his old age, always gave the exhortation: Little children, love one another. And when asked why, he answered: Because it is the command of the Lord, and it is enough to fulfill it. Therefore in this love of the neighbor which comes from the love of God and is contained in it, consists the fulfillment of the whole law. (Matt. XXII. 40.)


GOSPEL (Matt. VIII 23-27) At that time, when Jesus entered into the boat, his disciples followed him. And behold, a great tempest arose in the sea, so that the boat was covered with waves; but he was asleep. And they came to him and awaked him, saying: Lord, save us, we perish. And Jesus saith to them Why are ye fearful, O ye of little faith? Then rising up, he commanded the winds and the sea, and there came a great calm. But the men wondered, saying: What manner of man is this, for the winds and the sea obey him?


Why did Christ sleep in the boat?

To test the faith and confidence of His disciples; to exercise them in enduring the persecutions which they were afterwards to endure; to teach us that we should not waver in the storms of temptations. St. Augustine writes: "Christ slept, and because of the danger the disciples were confused. Why? Because Christ slept. In like manner thy heart becomes confused, thy ship unquiet, when the waves of temptation break over it. Why? Because thy faith sleeps. Then thou shouldst awaken Christ in thy heart; then thy faith should be awakened, thy conscience quieted, thy ship calmed."


Why did Christ reproach His disciples when they awaked Him and asked for help?

Because of their little faith and trust; for if they firmly believed Him to be true God, they would necessarily believe He could aid them sleeping as well as waking.

Nothing so displeases God as to doubt His powerful assistance. Cursed be the man that trusteth in man, and maketh flesh (mortal man) his arm (aid), and whose heart departeth from the Lord. Blessed be the man that trusteth in the Lord, and the Lord shall be his confidence. (Jerem. XVII. 5. 7.) God sometimes permits storms to assail us, such as poverty, persecution, sickness, so that we may have occasion to put our confidence in Him alone. Of this St. Bernard very beautifully says: "When the world rages, when the wicked become furious, when the flesh turns against the spirit, I will hope in Him. Who ever trusted in Him, and was put to shame?" We should therefore trust in God only, and take refuge to Him, invoking Him as did the disciples: Lord, save us, we perish; or cry out with David: Arise, why sleepest thou, O Lord? Arise, and cast us not off to the end. (Ps. XLIII. 23.)


Why did Jesus stand up and command the sea to be still?

To show His readiness to aid us, and His omnipotence to which all things are subject. His disciples who saw this miracle, wondered and said: What manner of man is this, for the winds and the sea obey Him?

We see daily in all creatures the wonders of the Omnipotence, the wisdom, and the goodness of God, and yet we are not touched; we continue cold and indifferent. The reason is, that we look upon all with the eyes of the body and not with the eyes of the soul; that is, we do not seek to ascend by meditation to the Creator, and to judge from the manifold beauty and usefulness of created things the goodness and the wisdom of God. The saints rejoiced in all the works of the Lord; a flower, a little worm of the earth would move the heart of St. Francis of Sales, and St. Francis the Seraph, to wonderment and to the love of God; they ascended, as on a ladder, from the contemplation of creatures to Him who gives to every thing life, motion, and existence. If we were to follow their example, we would certainly love God more, and more ardently desire Him; if we do not, we live like irrational men, we who were created only to know and to love God.

ASPIRATION Grant us, O good Jesus! in all our needs, a great confidence in Thy divine assistance, and do not allow us to become faint-hearted; let Thy assistance come to us in the many dangers to which we are exposed; command the turbulent winds and waves of persecution to be still, and give peace and calmness to Thy Church, which Thou hast redeemed with Thy precious blood, that we may serve Thee in sanctity and justice, and arrive safely at the desired haven of eternal happiness. Amen.


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ON THE PROVIDENCE OF GOD
But he was asleep. (Matt VIII. 24.)

It is an article of faith in the holy Catholic Church that God has not only created the world, but that He sustains and governs it; this preservation and ruling of the whole world and of each individual creature is called Providence. There are people who think that God is too great a Lord to busy Himself about the care of this world, that to do so is beneath His majesty; it was enough for Him to create the world, for the rest, He leaves it to itself or to fate, enjoys His own happiness, and, as it were, sleeps in regard to us. Thus think some, but only the ignorant and impious. Were He as these imagine Him, He would not or could not have aught to do with creation. If He could not, then He is neither all-wise nor almighty, if He would not, then He is not good; and if He knows nothing of the world, then He is not omniscient.

If we once believe that God created the world, (and what rational man can doubt it?) then we must also believe He rules and sustains it. Can any work of art, however well constructed and arranged, subsist without some one to take charge of and watch aver the same? Would not the greatest of all master-pieces, the world, therefore come to the greatest confusion and fall back into its original nothingness, if God, who created it from nothing, did not take care of its further order and existence? It is indeed true that the method of Divine Providence with which God controls all things is so mysterious that, when considering some events, one is persuaded to admit a necessary fate, an accident, the course of nature, the ill will of the devil or man, as the fundamental cause. Yet in all this the providence of God is not denied, for nothing does or can happen accidentally, not the smallest thing occurs without the knowledge, permission, or direction of God. Not one sparrow shall fall on the ground without your Father. But the very hairs of your head are all numbered. (Matt. X. 29. 30.) Chance, fate, and luck are but the ideas of insane or wicked men, which even the more rational heathens have rejected, and the course of nature is but the constant, uninterrupted, all-wise and bountiful preservation and government of creation through God. The perverted will of men or of the devil is but the instrument which God in His all-wise intention, uses to effect the good, for He knows how to produce good from evil, and, therefore, as St. Augustine says, "permits the evil that the good may not be left undone." If we peruse the history of our first parents, of Abraham, of Joseph in Egypt, of Moses, of the people of Israel, of Job, Ruth, David, Tobias, Esther, Judith and others, we will easily see everywhere the plainest signs of the wisest Providence, the best and most careful, absolute power, by virtue of which God knows how to direct all things according to His desire, and for the good of His chosen ones. The gospel of this day furnishes us an instance of this? Why did Christ go into the boat? Why did a storm arise? Why was He asleep? Did all this occur by accident? No, it came about designedly by the ordinance of Christ that His omnipotence might be seen, and the faith and confidence of His disciples be strengthened.

Thus it is certain that God foresees, directs, and governs all; as Scripture, reason, and daily experience prove. Would we but pay more attention to many events of our lives, we would certainly notice the providence of God, and give ourselves up to His guidance and dispensations. The Lord ruleth me, and I shall want nothing, says David. (Ps. XXII. 1.) And we also, we shall want nothing if we resign ourselves to God's will, and are contented with His dispensations in our regard; while, on the contrary, if we oppose His will, we shall fall into misfortune and error. God must rule over us with goodness, or with sternness, He is no slumbering God. Behold! He shall neither slumber nor sleep, that keepeth Israel. (Ps. CXX. 4.)
Fr. Hewko's Sermons for the Fourth Sunday after Epiphany


2017





2019 - Two Masses







2022

Sermon IX ~ Fourth Sunday after Epiphany~ Dangers to Eternal Salvation
Taken from here.

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And when he entered into the boat, his disciples followed him ; and, behold, a great tempest arose in the sea.” MATT. viii. 23, 24.



On the greatness of the dangers to which our eternal salvation is exposed, and on the manner in which we ought to guard against them.

1. IN this day’s Gospel we find that, when Jesus Christ entered the boat along with his disciples, a great tempest arose, so that the boat was agitated by the waves, and was on the point of being lost. During this storm the Saviour was asleep; but the disciples, terrified by the storm, ran to awake him, and said : “Lord, save us: we perish.” (v. 25.) Jesus gave them courage by saying: “Why are ye fearful, ye of little faith? Then rising up, he commanded the winds and the sea, and there came a great calm.” Let us examine what is meant by the boat in the midst of the sea, and by the tempest which agitated the sea.

2. The boat on the sea represents man in this world. As a vessel on the sea is exposed to a thousand dangers to pirates, to quicksands, to hidden rocks, and to tempests ; so man in this life is encompassed with perils arising from the temptations of Hell from the occasions of sin, from the scandals or bad counsels of men, from human respect, and, above all, from the bad passions of corrupt nature, represented by the winds that agitate the sea and expose the vessel to great danger of being lost.

3. Thus, as St. Leo says, our life is full of dangers, of snares, and of enemies: “Plena omnia periculis, plena laqueis: incitant cupiditates, insidiantur illecebra3 ; blandiuntur lucra.” (S. Leo, serm. v, de Quad.) The first enemy of the salvation of every Christian is his own corruption. “But every man is tempted by his own concupiscence, being drawn away and allured.” (St. James i. 14.) Along with the corrupt inclinations which live within us, and drag us to evil, we have many enemies from without that fight against us. We have the devils, with whom the contest is very difficult, because they are stronger than we are.” ” Bellum grave,” says Cassiodorus, “qui cum fortiore.” (In Psal. v.) Hence, because we have to contend with powerful enemies, St. Paul exhorts us to arm ourselves with the divine aid: ” Put you on the armour of God, that you may be able to stand against the deceits of the Devil. For our wrestling is not against flesh and blood, but against principalities and powers, against the rulers of the world of this darkness, against the spirits of wickedness in high places.” (Eph. vi. 11, 12.) The Devil, according to St. Peter, is a lion who is continually going about roaring, through the rage and hunger which impel him to devour our souls. ” Your adversary, the Devil, like a roaring lion, goeth about seeking whom he may devour.” (1 Peter, v. 8,) St. Cyprian says that Satan is continually lying in wait for us, in order to make us his slaves : “Circuit demon nos singulos, et tanquam hostis clauses obsidens muros explorat et tenat num sit pars aliqua minis stabilis, cujus auditu ad interiora penetre- tur.” (S. Cyp. lib. de zelo, etc.)

4. Even the men with whom we must converse endanger our salvation. They persecute or betray us, or deceive us by their flattery and bad counsels. St. Augustine says that, among the faithful there are in every profession hollow and deceitful men. “Omnis professio in ecclesia habet fictos.” (In Ps. xciv.) Now if a fortress were full of rebels within, and encompassed by enemies from without, who is there that would not regard it as lost ? Such is the condition of each of us as long as we live in this world. Who shall be able to deliver us from so many powerful enemies ? Only God : ” Unless the Lord keep the city, he watcheth in vain that keepeth it.” (Ps. cxxvi. 2.)

5. What then is the means by which we can save our souls in the midst of so many dangers? It is to imitate the holy disciples to have recourse to our Divine Master, and say to him : ” Save us ; we perish.” Save us, Lord ; if thou do not we are lost. When the tempest is violent, the pilot never takes his eyes from the light which guides him to the port. In like manner we should keep our eyes always turned to God, who alone can deliver us from the many dangers to which we are exposed. It was thus David acted when he found himself assailed by the dangers of sin. ” I have lifted up my eyes to the mountains, from whence help shall come to me.” (Ps. cxx. 1.) To teach us to recommend ourselves continually to him who alone can save us by his grace, the Lord has ordained that, as long as we remain on this earth, we should live in the midst of a continual tempest, and should be surrounded by enemies. The temptations of the Devil, the persecutions of men, the adversity which we suffer in this world, are not evils: they are, on the contrary, advantages, if we know how to make of them the use which God wishes, who sends or permits them for our welfare. They detach our affections from this earth, and inspire a disgust for this world, by making us feel bitterness and thorns even in its honours, its riches, its delights, and amusements. The Lord permits all these apparent evils, that we may take away our affections from fading goods, in which we meet with so many dangers of perdition, and that we may seek to unite ourselves with him who alone can make us happy.

6. Our error and mistake is, that when we find our selves harassed by infirmities, by poverty, by persecutions, and by such tribulations, instead of having recourse to the Lord, we turn to men, and place our confidence in their assistance, and thus draw upon ourselves the malediction of God, who says, ” Cursed be the man who trusteth in man.” (Jer. xvii. 5.) The Lord does not forbid us, in our afflictions and dangers, to have recourse to human means ; but he curses those who place their whole trust in them. He wishes us to have recourse to himself before all others, and to place our only hope in him, that we may also centre in him all our love.

7. As long as we live on this earth, we must, accord ing to St. Paul, work out our salvation with fear and trembling, in the midst of the dangers by which we are beset.” Cum metu et tremore vestram salutem operamini.” (Phil. ii. 12.) Whilst a certain vessel was in the open sea a great tempest arose, which made the captain tremble. In the hold of the vessel there was an animal eating with as much tranquillity as if the sea were perfectly calm. The captain being asked why he was so much afraid, replied: If I had a soul like the soul of this brute, I too would be tranquil and without fear ; but because I have a rational and an immortal soul, I am afraid of death, after which I must appear before the judgment-seat of God ; and therefore I tremble through fear. Let us also tremble, beloved brethren. The salvation of our immortal souls is at stake. They who do not tremble are, as St. Paul says, in great danger of being lost; because they who fear not, seldom recommend themselves to God, and labour but little to adopt the means of salvation. Let us beware: we are, says St. Cyprian, still in battle array, and still combat for eternal salvation. “Adhuc in acie constituti de vita nostra dimicamus.” (S. Cypr., lib. 1, cap. i.)

8. The first means of salvation, then, is to recommend ourselves continually to God, that he may keep his hands over us, and preserve us from offending him. The next is, to cleanse the soul from all past sins by making a general confession. A general confession is a powerful help to a change of life. When the tempest is violent the burden of the vessel is diminished, and each person on board throws his goods into the sea in order to save his life. folly of sinners, who, in the midst of such great dangers of eternal perdition, instead of diminishing the burden of the vessel that is, instead of unburdening the soul of her sins load her with a greater weight. Instead of flying from the dangers of sin, they fearlessly continue to put themselves voluntarily into dangerous occasions; and, instead of having recourse to God’s mercy for the pardon of their offences, they offend Him still more, and compel Him to abandon, them.

9. Another means is, to labour strenuously not to allow ourselves to become the slaves of irregular passions. ” Give me not over to a shameless and foolish mind.” (Eccl. xxiii. 6.) Do not, Lord, deliver me up to a mind blinded by passion. He who is blind sees not what he is doing, and therefore he is in danger of falling into every crime. Thus so many are lost by submitting to the tyranny of their passions. Some are slaves to the passion of avarice. A person who is now in the other world said: Alas ! I perceive that a desire of riches is beginning to rule over me. So said the unhappy man but he applied no remedy. He did not resist the passion in the beginning, but fomented it till death, and thus at his last moments left but little reason to hope for his salvation. Others are slaves to sensual pleasures. They are not content with lawful gratifications, and therefore they pass to the indulgence of those that are forbidden. Others are subject to anger ; and because they are not careful to check the fire at its commencement, when it is small, it increases and grows into a spirit of revenge.

10. “Hi hostes cavendi,” says St. Ambrose, "hi graviores tyranni. Multi in persecutione publica coronati, in hac persecutione ceciderunt.” (In Ps. cxviii. serm. 20.) Disorderly affections, if they are not beaten down in the beginning, become our greatest tyrants. Many, says St. Ambrose, after having victoriously resisted the persecutions of the enemies of the faith, were afterwards lost because they did not resist the first assaults of some earthly passion. Of this, Origen was a miserable example. He fought for, and was prepared to give his life in defence of the faith ; but, by afterwards yielding to human respect, he was led to deny it. (Natalis Alex ander, His. Eccl., torn. 7, dis. xv., q. 2, a. 1.) We have still a more miserable example in Solomon, who, after having received so many gifts from God, and after being inspired by the Holy Ghost, was, by indulging a passion for certain pagan, women, induced to offer incense to idols. The unhappy man who submits to the slavery of his wicked passions, resembles the ox that is sent to the slaughter after a life of constant labour. During their whole lives worldlings groan under the weight of their sins, and, at the end of their days, fall into Hell.

11. Let us conclude. When the winds are strong and violent, the pilot lowers the sails and casts anchor. So, when we find ourselves assailed by any bad passion, we .should always lower the sails ; that is, we should avoid all the occasions which may increase the passion and should cast anchor by uniting ourselves to God, and by begging of him to give us strength not to offend him

12. But some of you will say, What am I to do ? I live in the midst of the world, where my passions continually assail me even against my will. I will answer in the words of Origen: “Donee quis in tenebris sceculanbus manet et in negotiorum obscuritate versatur, nou potest servire Domino. Exeundum est ergo de Egypto, relmquendus est mundus, non loco sed ammo.” (Horn. 111. in Exod.) The man who lives in the darkness of the world and in the midst of secular business, can with difficulty serve God. Whoever then wishes to insure his eternal salvation, let him retire from the world, and take refuge in one of those exact religious communities which are the secure harbours in the sea of this world. If he cannot actually leave the world, let him leave it at least in affection, by detaching his heart from the things of this world, and from his own evil inclinations: "Go not after thy lusts,” says the Holy Ghost, "but turn away from thy own will.” (Eccl. xviii. 30.) Follow not your own concupiscence; and when your will impels you to evil, you must not indulge, but must resist its inclinations.

13. "The time is short: it remaineth that they also who have wives be as if they had none; and they that weep, as though they wept not ; and they that rejoice, as it they rejoiced not; and they that buy, as if they possessed not; and they that use this world, as if they used it not; for the fashion of this world passeth away” 1 Cor. vii. 29, etc.) The time of life is short; we should then prepare for death, which is rapidly approaching ; and to prepare for that awful moment, let us reflect that everything in this world shall soon end. Hence, the Apostle tells those who suffer in this life to be as if they suffered not, because the miseries of this life shall soon pass away, and they who save their souls shall be happy for eternity; and he exhorts those who enjoy the goods of this earth to be as if they enjoyed them not, because they must one day leave all things; and if they lose their souls, they shall be miserable for ever.
Homilies of St. Thomas Aquinas - Fourth Sunday after Epiphany



HOMILY VII. THE MYSTICAL SHIP.—No. I.

FOURTH SUNDAY AFTER THE EPIPHANY.—(FROM THE GOSPEL.)

"And when He was entered into a ship His disciples followed Him."— S. Matt. viii. 23.


Note.—S. Thomas Aquinas has no Homily upon the Epistle for this Sunday. The first of two on the Holy Gospel has supplied the omission. These two Homilies, as will be seen, illustrate each other.

Four things are to be considered in this Gospel. Firstly, the entering of Christ and His disciples into a ship. Secondly, the "great tempest in the sea.” Thirdly, the prayer of His disciples— "Lord save us, we perish.” Fourthly, the obedience of the storm to the command of Christ." There was a great calm." 

Morally, we are taught also four things. Firstly, to enter into holiness of life. Secondly, that temptations rage after we have entered. Thirdly, in our temptation to cry unto the Lord. Fourthly, to look for a calm according to His will.

I. On the first head it is to be noted, (1) That he enters into a ship who follows a holy life—S. Matt. ix. 1, “He entered into à ship ...... and came into His own city," just as by holiness of life man passes over and comes to his heavenly city. In the following Homily it will be explained why a holy life is likened unto a ship. (2) The disturbance of the sea by the tempest represents the temptations which rise up against holiness—Ecclus. ii. 1, "Son, when thou comest to the Service of God stand in justice and in fear, and prepare thy soul for temptation." (3) The cry of the disciples in the tempest is the prayer of the saints in tribulations and temptations—Ps. cxx. 1, ‘In my distress I cried unto the Lord, and He heard me." (4) The calm of the tempest is the cessation of temptation—Tob. iii. 22, “After a storm Thou makest a calm." Of these four—Ps. lxix. 23-29, “I am come into deep waters" in the ship of holiness, behold the first; “The floods overflow me," behold the second; "I am weary of my crying," behold the third; "Thy salvation, O God, set me up on high" above my temptations, behold the fourth. 

II. On the second head it is to be noted that the tempest in the sea arose from the winds. Holy Scripture speaks of four winds when temptation arises, and trouble to the saints. Firstly, from the infestation of demons: this is a cold wind —Ecclus. xliii. 22, “The cold north wind bloweth, and the water congealeth into crystal." Secondly, from the perverseness of heretics: this is a blasting wind—Gen. xli. 6, 7, * Seven thin ears and blasted with the east wind sprung up after them," and "devoured the seven rank and full ears." Thirdly, from the cruelty of tyrants: this is a vehement wind—Job. i. 19, "Behold there came a great wind from the wilderness" Fourthly, from the malignity of false Christians: this is a burning wind—Ecclus. xi. 4, “He that observeth the wind shall not sow.” Of these four, Dan. vii. 2— “The four winds of heaven strove upon the great sea." 

III. On the third head it is to be noted that in the prayer of the Apostles there were three things which moved the Lord to help them. Firstly, because they besought Him instantly, "they awoke Him." Secondly, they asked humbly, "Lord." Thirdly, because they prayed for a useful thing, “Save us.” Of (1), Rom. xii. 12, "Continuing instant in prayer;" of (2), S. Luke xviii. 13, 14, "The prayer of the humble publican penetrated Heaven itself;" of (8), S. John xvi. 24, “Ask and ye shall receive, that your joy may be full.” Of these three, S. Matt. vii. 7— "Ask, and it shall be given you; seek, and ye shall find; knock, and it shall be opened unto you." “Ask” humbly, and ye shall receive; "geek" what is profitable, and “ye shall find;” "knock" continually, and the Kingdom of Heaven shall be opened unto you. Unto which Kingdom may we be brought. 




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HOMILY VIII. THE MYSTICAL SHIP.—No. II.


FOURTH SUNDAY AFTER THE EPIPHANY.—(FROM THE GOSPEL.)

"And when He was entered into a ship His disciples followed Him."— S. Matt. viii. 28.


MORALL, by a ship holiness of life is signified—by reason of (1) the material; (2) the form; (3) the use. A ship is made of wood, iron, oakum, and pitch.

I. On the first head, the material of the ship, it is to be noted that —(1) By wood is represented righteousness, which is the righteousness of Christ—Wisd. xiv. 7, "Blessed is the wood by which justice cometh." (2) By iron, on account of its solidity, fortitude is expressed—Jer. i. 18, "Behold I have made thee this day ...... an inner pillar." (3) By oakum or tow, by which wounds are bound up, is implied temperance, by which is healed the wound of fleshly lust. Of those whose wounds have not been bound up it is said, Isa. i. 6, “Wounds, and bruises, and putrifying sores: they have not been closed, neither bound up." Jud. xvi. 13, of Samson, when deceived by Delilah, and bound with new ropes, “he broke them from off his arms like a
thread.” (4) By pitch is symbolized charity, which is the bond of souls—Gen. vi. 14, "Pitch it within and without with pitch.” A holy man is formed by charity—1 Cor. xvi. 14, "Let all your things be done with charity."

II. On the second head it is to be noted that the form of the ship consists in five particulars. Firstly, the smallness of the beginning. Secondly, breadth of the middle. Thirdly, the height of the end. Fourthly, the narrowness of the bottom. . Fifthly, the wideness of the top. Of (1), the smallness of its beginning, is the grief for past sins—Jer. vi. 26, "Make thee mourning as for an only son, most bitter lamentation.” Of (2), the breadth of the middle is hope of the eternal joys—Rom. xii. 12, "Rejoicing in hope.” Of (8), the height of the end is the fear of eternal punishments. The holy man grieves over the sins he commits, and he fears the punishments which he merits, but he fails not through desperation in fear and grief—S. Matt. iii. 8, "Bring forth, therefore, fruits meet for repentance." Of (4), the narrowness of the bottom is the humility which arises from highest goodness—Ps. lxxxi. 10, ** Open thy mouth wide and I will fill it." 

III. On the third head it is to be noted that the use of a ship in four ways stands for holiness of life. 1. The first use is to carry men across the sea. We ought by holiness to pass over the sea of this world to the heavenly country, to God—Wisd. xiv. 5, "Men also trust their lives even to a little wood, and passing over the sea by ships are saved." 2. The second is to carry merchandise, or fruits, which are the odour of good works, to be diffused from us on all sides- Job. iv. 25, 26, "My days are swifter than a post ...... they are passed away as the swift ships." Phil. iv. 18, "An odour of a sweet smell, a sacrifice acceptable, well-pleasing to God." 3. The third use is to make war in them. We ought by holiness to war against the demons—1 Macc. xv. 3, "I have chosen a great army, and have built ships of war." Eph. vi. 12, “ We wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers." 4. The fourth use is to catch fishes, to convert men to God—S. Matt. iv. 19, “I will make you fishers of men."